TABLEĀ 2

Studies included on LU

DiseaseReferenceFirst authorAimSubjectsStudy designMain results
ARDS[19]Copetti RTo assess the ability of LU to identify ARDS compared to cardiogenic pulmonary oedema58ProspectiveLU was able to discriminate between ARDS and cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
ARDS[20]Sekiguchi HTo assess the ability of LU to identify ARDS compared to cardiogenic pulmonary oedema134ProspectiveLU was able to discriminate between ARDS and cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
ARDS[21]Bass CMTo assess the ability of LU and arterial saturation to identify ARDS123ProspectiveLU was a useful tool to screen oxygenation impairment consistent with ARDS
ARDS[22]Huang DTo assess the ability of LU to identify ARDS in elderly patients51ProspectiveLU presented similar accuracy compared to chest CT
ARDS[23]Riviello EDTo estimate incidence of ARDS according to the Berlin definition and LU42ProspectiveUsing these criteria the incidence of ARDS was significantly improved
ARDS[24]Zhao ZTo assess prognostic values of LU in ARDS21ProspectiveEarly use of LU was a useful prognostic indicator in ARDS patients
ARDS[25]Tsubo TTo evaluate daily lung density changes in ARDS15ProspectiveLU was able to detect density changes in independent lung regions in ARDS
ARDS[26]Tsubo TTo evaluate lung density in ARDS40ProspectiveLU was able to detect density changes in independent lung regions in ARDS
ARDS[27]Tsubo TTo evaluate lung density in ARDS during prone positioning10ProspectiveLU was able to detect changes in density during prone positioning
ARDS[28]Stefanidis KTo evaluate LU in the measurement of pulmonary recruitment10ProspectiveLU could detect non-aerated lung areas during PEEP trials
ARDS[29]Bouhemad BTo evaluate LU in the measurement of pulmonary recruitment30ProspectiveLU could detect lung recruitment during PEEP changes
ARDS[30]Chiumello DTo assess LU score in the measurement of pulmonary recruitment20ProspectiveLU score should not be used to assess pulmonary recruitment
AHF[31]Enghard PTo evaluate LU in predicting extravascular lung water50ProspectiveLU correlated with extravascular lung water
AHF[32]Jambrick ZTo evaluate LU in predicting extravascular lung water121ProspectiveLU correlated with extravascular lung water
AHF[33]Volpicelli GTo evaluate LU in predicting extravascular lung water73ProspectiveLU correlated with extravascular lung water
AHF[34]Mallamaci FTo evaluate LU in predicting extravascular lung water47ProspectiveLU correlated with extravascular lung water in haemodialysis patients
AHF[35]Noble VETo evaluate LU in predicting extravascular lung water45ProspectiveLU score changes correlated with real time extravascular lung water changes during haemodialysis
AHF[36]Lichtenstein DATo evaluate LU in predicting pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure102ProspectiveLU score could predict a low pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure
AHF[37]Laursen CBTo evaluate LU in predicting the diagnosis of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema40ProspectiveLU was able to rule out cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
AHF[38]Cortellaro FTo evaluate LU in monitoring the response to therapy in cardiogenic pulmonary oedema41ProspectiveLU allowed to guide therapy titration in cardiogenic pulmonary oedema
AHF[39]Martindale JLTo evaluate LU in monitoring changes in pulmonary oedema20ProspectiveLU improved the clinical management
COPD[40]Lichtenstein DATo assess the relationship between comet tail artefacts and alveolar interstitial syndrome121ProspectiveGood correlation between the ground glass and comet tail artefacts
COPD[41]Silva STo compare LU with clinical, radiological and biological data78ProspectiveCardiothoracic ultrasound was a useful diagnostic approach
Pneumonia[42]Yang PCTo identify LU features associated with pneumonia161ProspectiveLU was a useful tool in the evaluation of pulmonary consolidation
Pneumonia[43]Testa ATo evaluate LU features in interstitial pneumonia98ProspectiveLU could provide early detection of interstitial pneumonia
Pneumonia[44]Reissig ATo identify LU features associated with pneumonia30ProspectiveLU was a useful tool in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with pneumonia
Pneumonia[45]Parlamento STo evaluate LU in confirming the clinical suspicion of pneumonia49ProspectiveLU should be considered in the diagnostic workup of pneumonia
Pneumonia[46]Sperandeo MTo evaluate LU in confirming the clinical suspicion of pneumonia15ProspectiveLU was a useful tool in the evaluation and follow-up of patients with pneumonia
Pneumonia[47]Cortellaro FTo evaluate LU to confirm the clinical suspicion of pneumonia120ProspectiveLU should be considered in the diagnostic workup of pneumonia
Pneumonia[48]Reissig ATo evaluate LU in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia30ProspectiveLU had a high accuracy in diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia
Pneumonia[49]Bourcier J-ETo evaluate LU in confirming the clinical suspicion of pneumonia144ProspectiveLU should be considered as a first-line diagnostic tool for pneumonia
Pneumonia[50]Corradi FTo compare LU with CXR in suspected community-acquired pneumonia32ProspectiveLU should be considered in the first-line diagnosis of pneumonia
Pneumonia[51]Liu XTo compare LU with CXR in suspected community-acquired pneumonia179ProspectiveLU had better diagnostic sensitivity and accuracy for diagnosing community-acquired pneumonia
Pneumonia[52]Pagano ATo compare LU with CXR in suspected community-acquired pneumonia107ProspectiveLU should be considered in the first-line diagnosis of pneumonia
Pneumonia[53]Lichtenstein DATo evaluate LU features and diagnosis of pneumonia66ProspectiveLU could distinguish pneumonia from reabsorption atelectasis
Pneumonia[54]Bouhemad BTo evaluate LU for lung re-aeration in ventilator-associated pneumonia30ProspectiveLU accurately estimated lung re-aeration
Pneumonia[55]Mongodi STo evaluate LU for early diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia99ProspectiveLU was a reliable tool for early ventilator-associated pneumonia diagnosis
Pneumothorax[56]Lichtenstein DATo evaluate the presence of lung point as specific sign of pneumothorax66ProspectiveThe lung point allowed the diagnosis of pneumothorax
Pneumothorax[57]Volpicelli GTo compare the pneumothorax volume between LU and chest CT124ProspectiveGood correlation between LU and chest CT
Pneumothorax[58]Dulchavsky SATo evaluate LU for diagnosis of pneumothorax382ProspectiveLU was a reliable tool for diagnosis of pneumothorax
Pneumothorax[59]Kirkpatrick AWTo evaluate LU for diagnosis of pneumothorax225ProspectiveLU was a reliable tool for diagnosis of pneumothorax
Pneumothorax[60]Weekes AJTo compare LU with CXR for confirmation of central venous catheter placement151ProspectiveNo difference between LU and CXR
Pneumothorax[61]Vezzani ATo compare LU with CXR for confirmation of central venous catheter placement111ProspectiveNo difference between LU and CXR
Pneumothorax[62]Maury ETo compare LU with CXR for confirmation of central venous catheter placement58ProspectiveLU was a more rapid method compared to CXR
Pneumothorax[63]Saucier STo evaluate LU for the detection of pneumothorax after chest tube removal50ProspectiveLU was accurate to detect pneumothorax
Pleural effusion[64]Lichtenstein DATo evaluate the safety of thoracentesis guided by LU40ProspectiveLU guaranteed safety during thoracentesis
Pleural effusion[65]Vignon PTo assess the ability of LU to predict the amount of pleural effusion97ProspectiveExpiratory interpleural distance was related to the amount of pleural effusion
Pleural effusion[66]Rozycki GSTo evaluate LU for diagnosis of pleural effusion47ProspectiveLU was a reliable tool for the diagnosis of pleural effusion in surgically ill patients
Pleural effusion[67]Rocco MTo compare LU with CXR in trauma patients15ProspectiveLU was a reliable tool for diagnosis of pleural effusion in trauma patients
Pleural effusion[68]Gallard ETo evaluate LU in patients with acute dyspnoea in the emergency department130ProspectiveLU permitted rapid detection of pleural effusion in presence of acute dyspnoea
Pleural effusion[69]Yu CJTo assess the ability of LU to predict the amount of pleural effusion320ProspectiveLU accurately detected pleural effusion in critically ill patients
Pleural effusion[70]Mayo PMTo assess the safety of ultrasound-guided thoracentesis211ProspectiveUltrasound thoracentesis in mechanical ventilation was a well-tolerated procedure
Pleural effusion[71]Schleder STo evaluate hand-carried LU for the diagnosis of pleural effusion24ProspectiveHand-carried LU had high diagnostic accuracy

LU: lung ultrasound; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CT: computed tomography; PEEP: positive end-expiratory pressure; AHF: acute heart failure; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CXR: chest X-ray.