Studies included on CT

DiseaseReferenceFirst authorAimSubjectsStudy designMain results
ARDS[72]Awerbuch ETo evaluate the diagnostic and clinical impact of CT134RetrospectiveUp to one-quarter of patients had clinical changes
ARDS[73]Owens CMTo compare morphological CT abnormalities with severity of lung injury score8ProspectiveExtent of CT abnormalities correlated with lung injury score
ARDS[74]Bombino MTo compare CT and CXR with clinical data17ProspectiveCT and CXR scores were related to the degree of gas exchange impairment
ARDS[75]Puybasset LTo compare CT distribution of gas and tissue analysis in ARDS and healthy subjects82ProspectiveDifferent lung morphologies corresponded to different distributions of gas within the lung
ARDS[76]Patroniti NTo compare helium dilution technique with CT to assess lung gas volume in patients with ARDS21ProspectiveHelium dilution technique showed good agreement with CT
ARDS[77]Patroniti NTo compare CT and indocyanine green dye double dilution technique for measurement of pulmonary oedema in ARDS14ProspectiveEstimation of oedema with indocyanine green showed good correlation and reproducibility with CT
ARDS[78]Lu QTo assess PEEP changes in single- or three-section, or whole lung CT39RetrospectiveSingle- and three-section differed from whole lung CT
ARDS[79]Vieira SRRTo compare pulmonary hyperinflation measured by low and high spatial resolution CT30ProspectiveIn ARDS accurate estimation of lung hyperinflation on CT required high spatial resolution
ARDS[80]Reske AWTo evaluate the ratio between PaO2/FiO2 and shunt71ProspectiveLogarithmic PaO2/FiO2 allowed estimation of CT shunt and its changes
ARDS[81]Caironi PTo assess a standardised low PEEP strategy148RetrospectiveThe PaO2/FiO2 computed at 5 cmH2O of PEEP accurately reflected the lung injury severity and recruitability
ARDS[82]Rouby JJTo assess differences in lung morphology with different lung mechanics and outcome71ProspectiveA severity score based on CT lung morphology accurately identified patients with the most severe forms of ARDS
ARDS[83]Stelter LTo evaluate CT findings in patients with sepsis and ARDS36ProspectiveA CT scoring system based on pulmonary findings was related to the outcome
ARDS[84]Lazoura OTo correlate CT morphology with clinical severity and outcome33RetrospectiveA greater extent of airspace disease was associated with higher clinical severity
ARDS[85]Simon MTo assess clinical utility of CT204RetrospectiveCT yielded useful information for diagnosis, prognosis and alternative diagnosis in ARDS patients
ARDS[86]Chiumello DTo investigate if low-dose CT can provide accurate quantitative and visual anatomical results45ProspectiveLow-dose CT showed good agreement with conventional CT both for quantitative and visual anatomical results
ARDS[87]Klapsing PTo investigate an automatic software programme for quantitative lung analysis10ProspectiveAutomatic software computation allowed accurate computation
ARDS[88]Miller PRTo identify high-risk patients according to pulmonary contusion volume49ProspectiveContusion volume on chest CT was predictive for ARDS development
ARDS[89]Reske AWTo evaluate quantitative CT in post-traumatic lung dysfunction78ProspectiveQuantitative CT might help to discriminate atelectasis from consolidation
ARDS[90]Chiumello DTo assess the effect of pleural effusion on respiratory mechanics, gas exchange and lung recruitability179ProspectivePleural effusion was of modest entity and did not affect respiratory system elastance
ARDS[91]Gattinoni LTo assess CT changes in early and late ARDS81ProspectiveLung structure markedly changed with ARDS duration
ARDS[92]Treggiari MMTo investigate prevalence/distribution of air cysts and bronchiectasis21RetrospectiveA predominant localisation of lesions in better ventilated areas (non-dependent)
ARDS[93]Burnham ELTo determine the relationship between pulmonary dysfunction and high-resolution CT89ProspectiveAmong survivors, high-resolution CT findings correlated with quality of life
ARDS[94]Nobauer IMTo evaluate changes in high-resolution CT 6–10 months after ARDS15ProspectiveARDS frequently resulted in fibrotic changes in the lung, particularly in the ventral regions
ARDS[95]Masclans JRTo evaluate the quality of life in survivors of ARDS and related CT changes38Prospective6 months after ARDS, there were mild radiological abnormalities in 76% of patients
ARDS[96]Kim SJTo determine if outcome differs between pulmonary and extrapulmonary ARDS29RetrospectivePulmonary lesions were more extensive in pulmonary compared to non-pulmonary ARDS
ARDS[97]Cressoni MTo assess the relationship between lung recruitability and pressure to overcome the compression forces51ProspectiveLung recruitability was not related to the pressure to overcome compression forces
ARDS[98]Puybasset LTo evaluate PEEP changes and lung morphology71RetrospectivePEEP effects were more related to lung morphology than the cause of lung injury
ARDS[99]Constantin J-MTo determine if differences in lung morphology predict the response to recruitment manoeuvres19ProspectiveLung morphology predicted response to recruitment; focal lung morphology was at high risk for hyperinflation with recruitment manoeuvre
ARDS[100]Chiumello DTo evaluate the effects of body mass index in ARDS101RetrospectiveObese patients with ARDS had similar chest wall elastance and lung recruitability compared to non-obese ARDS patients
ARDS[101]Cressoni MTo assess the amount of lung recruitability and opening and closing33ProspectivePEEP up to 25 cmH2O and plateau pressure up to 30 cmH2O were not adequate to keep the lung open
ARDS[102]Cressoni MTo quantify lung inhomogeneity148RetrospectiveLung inhomogeneity was related to disease severity and mortality
ARDS[103]Chiumello DTo determine if bedside PEEP selection is related to lung recruitability51ProspectiveOxygenation based method provided PEEP related to lung recruitability
ARDS[104]Constantin J-MTo compare two recruitment manoeuvres in ARDS19ProspectiveExtended sigh promoted higher alveolar recruitment and oxygenation compared to CPAP RM
ARDS[105]GaliatsouTo quantify lung volume changes during prone position21ProspectiveProne position recruited significantly more lung compared to recruitment manoeuvre
ARDS[106]Lu QTo evaluate the effects of exogenous surfactant on pulmonary aeration in patients with ARDS20ProspectiveSurfactant administration induced an improvement in lung aeration of poorly and non-aerated lung regions
ARDS[107]Lu QTo compare PV curves and CT during PEEP-induced lung recruitment19ProspectiveAlveolar recruitment assessed by CT and PV curve were strongly correlated but with very high limits of agreements
ARDS[108]Yoshida TTo compare airway pressure release ventilation compared to PSV on lung atelectasis18RetrospectiveAirway pressure released ventilation resulted in better lung aeration compared to PSV
ARDS[109]Varpula TTo compare airway pressure release ventilation compared to PSV on lung atelectasis and gas distribution23RetrospectiveNo differences in airway pressure release ventilation or PSV on CT characteristics
AHF[110]Saguel BTo compare CT estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration in predicting volume status30ProspectiveCT estimation of end diastolic volume index and extravascular lung water were not accurate in predicting volume status
AHF[111]Zhang FTo evaluate quantitative CT analysis to measure pulmonary oedema10ProspectiveAcceptable agreement between CT analysis and thermodilution
AHF[112]Vergani GTo compare quantitative CT analysis in cardiogenic pulmonary oedema and ARDS80ProspectiveSimilar presence of ground glass and different airspace consolidation regions
Pneumonia[113]Syriala HTo compare CT with CXR in the diagnosis of pneumonia47ProspectiveCT was more sensitive than CXR
Pneumonia[114]Gruden JFTo compare CT with CXR in AIDS patients33ProspectiveCT was more sensitive than CXR
Pneumonia[115]Claessens Y-ETo compare CT with CXR in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia319ProspectiveCT was more sensitive than CXR
Pneumonia[116]Hockstein NGTo compare CT with electronic nose sensor33ProspectiveAcceptable agreement between CT and nose sensor for pneumonia
COPD[117]Nieskowska ATo assess the regional distribution of inflation in COPD32ProspectivePEEP significantly increased lung overinflation
COPD[118]Bahloul MTo assess the incidence and outcome of pulmonary embolism in COPD131RetrospectiveHigher mortality and length of stay in COPD patients with an acute exacerbation and pulmonary embolism
Pneumothorax[119]Lichtenstein DATo compare CT with LU in the diagnosis of occult pneumothorax200RetrospectiveLU might decrease the need for CT
Pneumothorax[120]Soldati GTo compare CT with LU in the diagnosis of occult pneumothorax109ProspectiveLU might decrease the need for CT
Pneumothorax[121]Xirouchaki NTo compare CT with LU and CXR42ProspectiveLU could be an alternative to CT
Pleural effusion[122]Remerand FTo assess the accuracy of LU to measure pleural effusion58ProspectiveThe multiplane LU approach estimated pleural effusion volume better than the conventional technique

CT: computed tomography; ARDS: acute respiratory distress syndrome; CXR: chest X-ray; PEEP: positive end-expiratory pressure; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen; CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; RM: remote monitoring; PSV: pressure support ventilation; AHF: acute heart failure; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LU: lung ultrasound.