TABLE 4

Associations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and ambient air pollution exposure#

Cases/non-cases n/nOR (95% CI)
PM2.5 per 5 μg·m−320 478/257 0891.52 (1.42–1.62)
PM10 per 10 μg·m−320 478/257 0891.08 (1.00–1.16)
PMcoarse per 5 μg·m−320 478/257 0890.99 (0.91–1.07)
NO2 per 10 μg·m−321 900/276 9481.12 (1.10–1.14)

Bold type represents statistical significance. PM2.5: fine particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm; PM10: particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter <10 μm; PMcoarse: coarse particulate matter with diameter 2.5–10 μm; NO2: nitrogen dioxide. #: adjusted for age (continuous), sex, body mass index (kg·m−2), household income (<GBP 31 000/≥GBP 31 000), education level (lower vocational or less/higher vocational or more), smoking status (never/former/current) and passive smoking exposure at home (none/any).