TABLE 1

Characteristics of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) patients and risk factors associated with time to loss to follow-up (LFU)

VariablePatient characteristicsQuantile regression analysis: median (IQR) time to LFU monthsCox proportional hazards analysis
CategoryPatients in group n (% of total patients)Recorded as LFU n (% of total LFU)LFU in each category %Unadjusted HR (95% CI)p-valueAdjusted HR (95% CI)p-value
TotalAll patients409970217.17 (3–11)
SexFemale1249 (30.5)181 (25.8)14.57 (4–11)ReferenceReference
Male2850 (69.5)521 (74.2)18.37 (3–11)1.3 (1.1–1.6)<0.011.2 (1.0–1.4)0.06
Age0–25 years735 (17.9)104 (14.8)14.17 (4–13)ReferenceReference
26–35 years1148 (28.0)178 (25.4)15.57 (3–12)1.2 (0.9–1.5)0.221.1 (0.8–1.4)0.62
36–50 years1377 (33.6)269 (38.3)19.57 (4–11)1.5 (1.2–1.9)<0.011.3 (1.0–1.6)0.04
51–99 years839 (20.5)151 (21.5)18.06 (3–11)1.4 (1.1–1.8)0.011.3 (1.0–1.6)0.08
National income categoryHigh income2184 (53.3)374 (53.3)17.17 (4–12)ReferenceReference
Middle income1915 (46.7)328 (46.7)17.16 (2–11)1.1 (0.9–1.2)0.370.9 (0.7–1.2)0.48
HIV statusNegative3644 (88.9)599 (85.3)16.47 (4–11)ReferenceReference
Positive111 (2.7)32 (4.6)28.88 (4–15)1.8 (1.3–2.5)<0.011.8 (1.2–2.7)<0.01
Unknown344 (8.4)71 (10.1)20.67 (3–11)1.3 (1.0–1.6)0.051.6 (1.2–2.0)<0.01
Extensive TB diseaseNo1022 (24.9)161 (22.9)15.86 (3–11)ReferenceReference
Yes3019 (73.7)535 (76.2)17.77 (4–11)1.1 (1.0–1.4)0.161.0 (0.7–1.5)0.99
Unknown58 (1.4)6 (0.9)10.39 (1–17)0.6 (0.3–1.4)0.260.9 (0.4–2.1)0.74
TB treatment regimenStandardised377 (9.2)98 (14.0)26.07 (3–11)ReferenceReference
Individualised3722 (90.8)604 (86.0)16.28 (6–12)0.5 (0.4–0.6)<0.010.7 (0.6–1.0)0.03
Previous TB drug treatmentNone965 (23.5)168 (23.9)17.47 (4–12)ReferenceReference
First line2073 (50.6)356 (50.7)17.27 (3–10)0.8 (0.7–1.1)0.960.8 (0.7–1.0)0.08
Second line653 (15.9)106 (15.1)16.27 (3–13)1.0 (0.8–1.6)0.150.9 (0.7–1.2)0.53
Unknown378 (9.2)72 (10.3)19.07 (4–14)1.2 (0.9–1.6)0.170.8 (0.6–1.2)0.50
Resistance to pyrazinamideSusceptible1135 (27.7)174 (24.8)15.38 (5–12)ReferenceReference
Resistant1561 (38.1)235 (33.5)15.17 (5–12)0.98 (0.8–1.2)0.821.1 (0.9–1.3)0.59
Unknown1403 (34.2)293 (41.7)20.96 (2–10)1.7 (1.4–2.0)<0.012.4 (1.9–3.0)<0.01
Resistance to ethambutolSusceptible1386 (33.8)258 (36.8)18.66 (3–10)ReferenceReference
Resistant2241 (54.7)362 (51.6)16.27 (4–12)0.8 (0.7–1.0)0.010.9 (0.8–1.1)0.51
Unknown472 (11.5)82 (11.7)17.48 (6–15)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.111.1 (0.8–1.6)0.51
Resistance to streptomycinSusceptible967 (23.6)195 (27.8)20.27 (4–12)ReferenceReference
Resistant2831 (69.1)481 (68.5)17.07 (3–11)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.180.9 (0.8–1.1)0.37
Unknown301 (7.3)26 (3.7)8.613 (6–16)0.4 (0.3–0.6)<0.010.2 (0.1–0.4)<0.01
Serious adverse eventNo814 (19.9)210 (29.9)25.86 (1–10)ReferenceReference
Yes960 (23.4)134 (19.1)14.08 (5–11)0.5 (0.4–0.6)<0.010.5 (0.4–0.6)<0.01
Unknown2325 (56.7)358 (51.0)15.47 (4–12)0.5 (0.4–0.6)<0.010.5 (0.4–0.7)<0.01
AFB smearNegative732 (17.9)124 (17.7)16.96 (3–13)ReferenceReference
Positive2412 (58.8)457 (65.1)18.97 (3–12)1.1 (0.9–1.4)0.171.0 (0.7–1.7)0.84
Unknown955 (23.3)121 (17.2)12.77 (4–10)0.71 (0.5–0.9)<0.010.9 (0.6–1.3)0.54

IQR: interquartile range; AFB: acid-fast bacilli.