Characteristics of the study participants at diagnosis

Age years51±15
Female199 (66)
PAH subgroup
 Idiopathic261 (87)
 Heritable40 (13)
WHO functional class
 I–II44 (15)
 III219 (73)
 IV38 (13)
BMI kg·m−230±7
Presence of emphysema on CT scan#7 (2)
Pulmonary haemodynamics
 RAP mmHg9 (7)
 mPAP mmHg53 (18)
 Cardiac index L·min−1·m−22 (1)
 Cardiac output L·min−14 (2)
 PVR WU11 (8)
 PCWP mmHg9±3
SvO2 %64±8
6MWD m310 (203)
Pulmonary function tests
 FEV1 % pred84±19
KCO % pred74±24
Area-level deprivation
 Quantile 1 (most deprived)95 (32)
 Quantile 268 (23)
 Quantile 361 (21)
 Quantile 452 (18)
 Quantile 519 (6)
 Missing category6 (2)
Household income
 Quantile 141 (14)
 Quantile 240 (13)
 Quantile 340 (13)
 Quantile 450 (17)
 Quantile 5 (most deprived)28 (9)
 Missing category102 (34)
 Primary/lower secondary62 (21)
 Upper/post-secondary124 (41)
 Tertiary90 (30)
 Missing category25 (8)
Smoking status at diagnosis
 Current smoker22 (7)
 Ex-smoker92 (31)
 Never-smoker46 (15)
 Missing category141 (47)
 White271 (90)
 Asian18 (6)
 Other+12 (4)

Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated; the percentages may not add up to 100% due to rounding. PAH: pulmonary arterial hypertension; WHO: World Health Organization; BMI: body mass index; CT: computed tomography; RAP: right atrial pressure; mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; WU: Wood units; PCWP: pulmonary capillary wedge pressure; SvO2: mixed venous oxygen saturation; 6MWD: 6-min walk distance; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; KCO: transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide. Data were complete for all variables except where indicated by a missing category and further missing data on the continuous variables: BMI n=9, RAP n=16, cardiac index n=16, PAP n=5, cardiac output n=10, PVR n=35, PCWP n=35, SvO2 n=27, 6MWD n=92, FEV1 n=23 and KCO n=46. #: the presence of emphysema was based on baseline chest CT at the time of diagnosis; : median (interquartile range); +: includes those of black and mixed ethnicity, and those who preferred not to answer.