TABLE 2

Predictive performance of various methods in the primary and validation cohorts

AUC (95% CI)Accuracy % (95% CI)Sensitivity % (95% CI)Specificity % (95% CI)
Clinical model
 Primary0.66 (0.62–0.70)61.60 (57.90–65.15)64.39 (59.75–68.90)56.75 (50.65–62.68)
 Validation0.61 (0.58–0.64)61.83 (58.88–64.88)56.30 (52.41–60.41)67.21 (63.20–71.20)
Semantic model
 Primary0.76 (0.72–0.80)64.77 (61.31–68.22)71.49 (67.86–75.09)61.22 (57.45–65.12)
 Validation0.64 (0.61–0.67)62.24 (59.94–64.72)63.03 (59.61–66.60)61.48 (58.22–64.92)
Radiomics model
 Primary0.70 (0.66–0.74)66.27 (62.96–69.83)85.05 (81.81–88.46)40.98 (35.82–46.34)
 Validation0.64 (0.61–0.67)61.47 (58.69–64.69)64.04 (60.34–68.34)58.97 (55.10–63.10)
DL model
 Primary0.85 (0.83–0.88)77.02 (74.02–79.97)76.83 (73.17–80.49)79.03 (74.26–83.61)
 Validation0.81 (0.79–0.83)73.86 (71.82–75.82)72.27 (69.27–75.27)75.41 (72.32–78.32)

Data are presented as % (95% CI). All the results in the primary cohort were evaluated by five-fold cross-validation. Bold type represents the best performance. AUC: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.