TABLE 1

Patient characteristics and initial survey results (2012)

All patientsResurveyed patientsLost to follow-up or diedp-valueHIV-positiveHIV-negativep-value
Subjects398284114199199
HIV infection199 (50.0)135 (47.5)64 (56.1)0.149
CD4 count <100 cells·µL−18 (2.0)3 (1.1)5 (4.4)0.0468 (4.0)00.007
Female155 (38.9)100 (35.2)55 (48.2)0.01798 (49.2)57 (28.6)<0.001
Positive sputum smear at TB diagnosis303 (76.1)224 (78.9)79 (69.3)0.051134 (67.3)169 (84.9)<0.001
On TB treatment10 (2.5)6 (2.1)4 (3.5)0.38610 (5.0)0<0.001
<1 year from TB treatment86 (21.6)56 (19.7)30 (26.3)36 (18.1)50 (25.1)
1–3 years from TB treatment141 (35.4)105 (37.0)36 (31.6)60 (30.2)81 (40.7)
>3 years from TB treatment160 (40.2)116 (40.8)44 (38.6)93 (46.7)67 (33.7)
Traditional “grass-thatch” home371 (93.2)269 (94.7)102 (89.5)0.077183 (92)188 (94.5)0.426
Dampness reported in home119 (29.9)77 (27.1)42 (36.8)0.06962 (31.2)57 (28.6)0.662
Subsistence farmer373 (93.7)269 (94.7)104 (91.2)0.252180 (90.5)193 (97)0.012
Frequently cooks on open charcoal stove81 (20.4)57 (20.1)24 (21.1)0.89145 (22.6)36 (18.1)0.319
Smokes tobacco39 (9.8)30 (10.6)9 (7.9)0.46213 (6.5)26 (13.1)0.042
Age (mean (range)) years42 (16–83)42410.33240 (16–73)44 (16–83)<0.001
CD4 count in HIV-positive persons (median (range)) cells·µL−1424 (14–1400)424 (59–1400)439 (14–869)0.664
Cough#130 (32.7)92 (32.4)38 (33.3)0.90651 (25.6)79 (39.7)0.004
Haemoptysis#14 (3.5)11 (3.9)3 (2.6)0.7655 (2.5)9 (4.5)0.415
Fatigue#191 (48.0)138 (48.6)53 (46.5)0.74096 (48.2)95 (47.7)1
Fevers#99 (24.9)74 (26.1)25 (21.9)0.44250 (25.1)49 (24.6)1
Severe dyspnoea#90 (22.6)57 (20.1)33 (28.9)0.06443 (21.6)47 (23.6)0.719
Night sweats#131 (32.9)98 (34.5)33 (28.9)0.34554 (27.1)77 (38.7)0.019
Chest pain#214 (53.8)163 (57.4)51 (44.7)0.02699 (49.7)115 (57.8)0.131
Cavitation65 (16.3)46 (16.2)19 (16.7)0.88224 (12.1)41 (20.6)0.029
Paracavitary fibrosis34 (8.5)24 (8.5)10 (8.8)114 (7.0)20 (10.1)0.370
Pleural thickening58 (14.6)44 (15.5)14 (12.3)0.53023 (11.6)35 (17.6)0.118
Fungal ball15 (3.8)9 (3.2)6 (5.3)0.3835 (2.5)10 (5.0)0.292
Aspergillus IgG >20 mg·L−121 (5.3)15 (5.3)6 (5.3)17 (3.5)14 (7.0)0.177

Data are presented as n or n (%), unless otherwise stated. TB: tuberculosis. #: present for ≥1 month; : two-sided Chi-squared test. p-values calculated by Fisher's exact test, except where indicated. Mean results compared by the t-test and median results by the Mann–Whitney U-test. p<0.05 considered significant.