Molecular endpoints to consider when developing novel therapies for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

EndpointTissue compartment
Pharmacokinetics of study drugBlood/lung
Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone and nintedanib in presence of study drugBlood/lung
Study drug-specific molecular endpointBlood/lung
Molecular imaging using target-specific probeLung
Candidate remodelling-specific molecular markersBlood
 CCL18 (macrophages)
 MMP7, MMP3, SPD, CA-125 (lung epithelium)
 CXCL13 (lymphoid aggregates)
 Collagen degradation products, COMP (matrix/fibroblasts)
Lung-specific cellular or molecular responses to drugLung
 BAL cells, fluid
 Lung tissue

BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage.