TABLE 1

Demographics and distribution of risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

LowlandsHighlandsp-value
Subjects193199
Male100 (51.8)87 (43.7)0.109
Age years44.4±13.650.0±16.3<0.001
Height cm166.3±8.9161.1±9.6<0.001
Weight kg71.7±14.767.4±13.70.002
BMI kg·m−225.9±4.726.0±5.60.793
Higher education#54 (28.0)10 (5.0)<0.001
Profession<0.001
 Primary sector4 (2.1)92 (46.2)
 Secondary sector23 (11.9)8 (4.0)
 Tertiary/quaternary sector90 (46.6)13 (6.5)
 Housewife/husband31 (16.1)37 (18.6)
 Other45 (23.3)49 (24.6)
Smoking status<0.001
 Never-smoker110 (57.0)140 (74.1)
 Ex-smoker12 (6.2)14 (7.4)
 Current smoker71 (36.8)35 (18.5)
  Male58 (81.7)30 (85.7)0.604
Pack-years+4.0 (1.6–11.5)11.0 (2.0–24.5)0.009
Tuberculosis (ever-diagnosed)§0 (0.0)3 (2.0)0.086
Solid fuel
 Solid fuel use145 (75.1)199 (100.0)<0.001
 Nonsolid fuel use193 (100.0)82 (41.2)<0.001

Data are presented as n, n (%), mean±sd or median (interquartile range). BMI: body mass index. #: the highest level of completed education above secondary education; : two missing values in the lowlands and 14 in the highlands; +: two missing values in the lowlands and six in the highlands; §: 46 missing values, all in the highlands.