TABLE 3

Benzodiazepines (BDZs) and opioids and adjusted hazard ratio of admission to hospital and mortality in 1603 patients with oxygen-dependent fibrotic interstitial lung disease

Adjusted HR (95% CI)#
AdmissionMortality
BDZs
 Untreated11
 Low dose1.19 (0.95–1.49)1.13 (0.92–1.38)
 High dose1.27 (0.92–1.73)1.46 (1.08–1.97)
Opioids
 Untreated11
 Low dose1.21 (0.96–1.52)1.22 (0.99–1.50)
 High dose1.08 (0.86–1.35)1.11 (0.89–1.39)
Covariates
 Age years0.98 (0.98–0.99)1.02 (1.01–1.03)
 Male1.05 (0.93–1.19)1.41 (1.24–1.60)
 VC % pred1.00 (1.00–1.00)1.00 (1.00–1.00)
 FEV1/VC1.07 (0.94–1.22)0.99 (0.89–1.11)
PaO2 breathing air1.00 (0.93–1.07)1.00 (0.94–1.07)
PaCO2 breathing air0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.89 (0.79–1.00)
PaO2 breathing oxygen0.99 (0.88–1.10)0.99 (0.89–1.11)
 BMI kg·m−2
  <18.511
  18.5–24.91.26 (0.86–1.85)0.72 (0.52–0.99)
  25–29.91.30 (0.87–1.92)0.70 (0.50–0.97)
  ≥301.28 (0.85–1.93)0.54 (0.38–0.77)
 WHO Performance Status
  0–111
  21.09 (0.95–1.25)1.48 (1.29–1.70)
  3–40.78 (0.63–0.96)2.00 (1.67–2.38)
  Missing1.04 (0.86–1.26)1.49 (1.22–1.81)
 Cardiovascular diseases n
  011
  11.11 (0.85–1.47)1.03 (0.76–1.41)
  21.05 (0.90–1.22)0.99 (0.85–1.16)
  ≥31.04 (0.89–1.21)1.05 (0.90–1.23)
 Comorbidity
  Cancer1.15 (1.02–1.30)0.85 (0.75–0.96)
  Depression/anxiety0.79 (0.60–1.05)1.08 (0.82–1.41)
  Diabetes mellitus0.95 (0.82–1.10)1.04 (0.90–1.20)
  Injury1.05 (0.90–1.24)1.10 (0.93–1.29)
  Osteoporosis1.03 (0.80–1.33)0.83 (0.64–1.09)
  Renal failure0.83 (0.61–1.13)1.50 (1.19–1.90)
  Pulmonary hypertension0.88 (0.68–1.14)1.10 (0.86–1.41)
  GORD1.15 (0.85–1.56)0.85 (0.62–1.17)
 Hospitalisations within 4 years before baseline1.05 (1.02–1.07)0.99 (0.97–1.01)
 Hospitalised days within the 91 days before baseline1.00 (1.00–1.01)1.00 (1.00–1.01)

VC: vital capacity; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; PaO2: arterial oxygen tension; PaCO2: arterial carbon dioxide tension; BMI: body mass index; WHO: World Health Organization; GORD: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. #: model adjusted for all variables in the table as well as smoking status, and use of corticosteroids, azathioprine and N-acetylcysteine.