TABLE 2

Summary of results from included studies by disease severity

First author, year [ref.]Severe asthma
(corticosteroid- dependent)
A
Severe asthma
(non-corticosteroid dependent)
B
Mild to moderate asthma
C
Non-asthmatics
D
Side-effectComparisonOR (95% CI)p-value
Bone and muscle complications
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412OsteopeniaA+B versus C5.26 (3.75–7.37)<0.001
A+B versus D6.68 (4.28–10.43)<0.001
OsteoporosisA+B versus C5.23 (3.97–6.89)<0.001
A+B versus D6.53 (4.63–9.21)<0.001
FracturesA+B versus C1.54 (1.06–2.22)0.022
A+B versus D1.65 (1.14–2.39)0.007
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328OsteopeniaA versus B1.15 (0.73–1.81)0.36
Osteoporosis1.21 (0.67–2.17)0.44
Fractures3% versus 0.3%#0.007
Adrenal complications
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328Cushingoid symptomsA versus B6% versus 0.3%#<0.001
Adrenal insufficiency3% versus 0.3%#0.010
Cardiovascular system
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412HypertensionA+B versus C1.35 (1.12–1.61)0.001
A+B versus D1.76 (1.44–2.14)<0.001
Cardiovascular diseaseA+B versus C1.36 (1.02–1.81)0.035
A+B versus D1.57 (1.14–2.15)0.005
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328HypertensionA versus B1.59 (1.07–2.37)0.012
Cardiovascular disease0.71 (0.39–1.30)0.41
Metabolic complications
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412Type II diabetesA+B versus C1.46 (1.11–1.91)0.006
A+B versus D1.76 (1.30–2.38)<0.001
Obesity (BMI >30 kg·m−2)A+B versus C1.36 (1.16–1.59)<0.001
A+B versus D2.04 (1.74–2.39)<0.001
HypercholesterolaemiaA+B versus C1.15 (0.92–1.44)0.21
A+B versus D1.61 (1.25–2.08)<0.001
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328NIDDMA versus B3.48 (1.94–6.26)<0.001
Obesity (BMI >30 kg·m−2)1.47 (1.10–1.97)0.016
Weight gain12% versus 1%#<0.001
Eye diseases
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412GlaucomaA+B versus C1.12 (0.75–1.68)0.58
A+B versus D1.41 (0.89–2.25)0.15
CataractsA+B versus C1.89 (1.39–2.56)<0.001
A+B versus D2.42 (1.70–3.43)<0.001
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328GlaucomaA versus B0.83 (0.28–2.50)0.98
Cataracts6% versus 0%#0.002
Psychiatric disorders
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412Psychiatric conditions/anxiety/depressionA+B versus C1.43 (1.22–1.69)<0.001
A+B versus D1.67 (1.42–1.97)<0.001
Sleep disordersA+B versus C1.70 (1.13–2.53)0.010
A+B versus D2.21 (1.46–3.35)<0.001
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328Depression/anxiety/low moodA versus B2.57 (1.76–3.76)<0.001
Sleep disturbance4% versus 1%#0.003
Gastrointestinal complications
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]
Barry, 2017 [21]
Barry, 2018 [20]
80839752412Dyspeptic disordersA+B versus C3.99 (3.37–4.72)<0.001
A+B versus D4.88 (4.11–5.79)<0.001
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328Dyspeptic disordersA versus B1.96 (1.45–2.64)<0.001
Various
 Sweeney, 2016 [14]422328Skin conditionsA versus B4% versus 0.3%#0.002
Obstructive sleep apnoea2.80 (1.48–5.29)<0.001

Data are presented as n, unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; NIDDM: non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. #: the publication did not provide odds ratios for side-effect with few events; in this review we provide percentages in these cases instead if a threshold of >1% was reached in any group.