Additionally adjusted associations of average air pollution exposure in the preschool time window with lung function growth from age eight to age 16 (n=871)#

PollutantIncrementDifference in FEV1 % (95% CI)Difference in FVC % (95% CI)
NO27.8 µg·m−3−0.31 (−0.47 to −0.14)0.01 (−0.14 to 0.16)
PM2.5 absorbance0.3 10−5·m−1−0.33 (−0.51 to −0.16)0.05 (−0.11 to 0.22)
PM2.51.2 µg·m−3−0.26 (−0.49 to −0.03)0.24 (0.03 to 0.45)
PM100.9 µg·m−3−0.20 (−0.33 to −0.08)−0.02 (−0.13 to 0.09)
PMcoarse0.5 µg·m−3−0.17 (−0.28 to −0.06)−0.01 (−0.11 to 0.09)

FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; NO2: nitrogen dioxide; PMx: particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of x µm; PMcoarse: particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5–10 µm. #: n is smaller than indicated due to missing data; : estimates were interpreted as the percentage difference in 1-year growth (95% CI) in FEV1 (and FVC) for an interquartile range increase in exposure. They were adjusted for sex, age and log-transformation of weight, as well as height, parental education, maternal atopy, paternal atopy, breastfeeding, respiratory infections in the last 3 weeks (prior to the medical examination), Dutch nationality, indoor tobacco smoke exposure in the home at 3 months, maternal smoking in pregnancy, furry pets in the home at 3 months, mould in the home at 1 year, gas cooking at 3 months and average air pollution concentrations for the 7 days preceding the lung function measurement.