TABLE 3

Cox regression survival analysis for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) (whole cohort)

CovariateUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
HR (95% CI)p-valueHR (95% CI)p-value
Age#per 15 years1.68 (1.40–2.02)<0.0011.39 (1.06–1.80)0.016
BMI#per 7 kg·m−20.82 (0.68–0.99)0.046
WHO FCI/II or III/IV; Ref.=I/II2.20 (1.12–4.30)0.021
ISWD#per 177 m0.51 (0.41–0.63)<0.001
RAP#per 5 mmHg1.30 (1.14–1.49)<0.001
Cardiac index#per 0.8 L·min−1·m−20.75 (0.64–0.88)<0.001
PVR#per 4.3 WU1.36 (1.16–1.60)<0.001
SvO2#per 8%0.66 (0.57–0.76)<0.0010.71 (0.57–0.87)0.001
FEV1#per 35%0.65 (0.49–0.86)0.002
DLCO#per 17%0.52 (0.44–0.62)<0.0010.59 (0.46–0.74)<0.001
VTERef.=absent0.70 (0.51–0.95)0.020
CancerRef.=absent2.33 (1.58–3.45)<0.0012.24 (1.28–3.95)0.005
ObesityRef.=absent0.68 (0.49–0.95)0.023
Thyroid disordersRef.=absent1.35 (0.88–2.06)0.166
CADRef.=absent2.17 (1.47–3.18)<0.001
LV dysfunctionRef.=absent1.77 (0.86–3.48)0.096
CKDRef.=absent2.33 (1.44–3.77)0.0012.20 (1.22–4.71)0.021
PEARef.=not performed0.31 (0.22–0.43)<0.0010.38 (0.23–0.63)<0.001

Data shown for univariate analysis where p<0.20; 72 variables were imported into univariate analysis. HR: hazard ratio; Ref.: reference parameter; BMI: body mass index; WHO FC: World Health Organization Functional Class; ISWD: incremental shuttle walk distance; RAP: right atrial pressure; mPAP: mean pulmonary arterial pressure; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; WU: Wood units; SvO2: mixed venous oxygen saturation; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; VTE: venous thromboembolism; CAD: coronary artery disease; LV: left ventricular; CKD: chronic kidney disease; PEA: pulmonary endarterectomy. #: these variables are scaled so that the hazard ratio is the change by 1 sd.