TABLE 4

Cox regression survival analysis in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH)-technically-operable who were offered surgery (operated group and declined surgery (patient choice) subgroups)

CovariateUnivariate analysisMultivariate analysis
HR (95% CI)p-valueHR (95% CI)p-value
Age#per 15 years1.71 (1.30–2.25)<0.001
WHO FCI/II or II/IV; Ref.=I/II3.98 (1.25–12.65)0.019
Cardiac arrhythmiaRef.=absent2.16 (1.03–4.53)0.043
ISWD#per 185 m0.56 (0.41–0.75)<0.001
RAP#per 6 mmHg1.57 (1.25–1.98)<0.001
PVR#per 4 WU1.39 (1.08–1.78)0.009
SvO2#per 8%0.62 (0.49–0.77)<0.0010.66 (0.49–0.89)0.006
DLCO#per 16%0.56 (0.42–0.75)<0.0010.67 (0.47–0.95)0.025
VTERef.=absent0.62 (0.39–0.98)0.045
CancerRef.=absent1.77 (0.85–3.69)0.127
ObesityRef.=absent0.55 (0.33–10.92)0.024
Thyroid disordersRef.=absent1.65 (0.87–3.15)0.122
CADRef.=absent2.21 (1.24–3.94)0.0072.34 (1.11–4.96)0.026
CKDRef.=absent1.90 (0.82–4.38)0.132
Patient choiceRef.=surgery2.56 (1.57–4.16)<0.0013.64 (1.95–6.81)<0.001

Data shown for univariate analysis where p<0.20; 72 variables were imported into univariate analysis. HR: hazard ratio; Ref.: reference parameter; WHO FC: World Health Organization Functional Class; ISWD: incremental shuttle walk distance; RAP: right atrial pressure; PVR: pulmonary vascular resistance; WU: Wood units; SvO2: mixed venous oxygen saturation; DLCO: diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide; VTE: venous thromboembolism; CAD: coronary artery disease; CKD: chronic kidney disease. #: these variables are scaled so that the hazard ratio is the change by 1 sd.