TABLE 1

Study characteristics

First author [ref.]YearType of studyPrimary spontaneous pneumothorax nInterventionsExcluded patients (n)First episodeFollow-up monthsOverall recurrence rate
Al-Alawi [17]2009Retrospective208Conservative, ICDNoneNot stated42#0.35
Al-Mourgi [18]2015RCT22Conservative, surgeryUnderwent surgery (19)First32.4#0.41
Andersen [19]1965Retrospective138Conservative, ICDSecondary spontaneous pneumothorax (48)First71#0.16
Casali [10]2013Retrospective176Conservative, ICD,NoneFirst58#0.46
Chan [12]2006Retrospective89Needle aspirationNoneFirst and recurrent120.16
Chen [20]2008Retrospective18ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (34)First16#0.28
Chen [21]2008Retrospective33Needle aspiration, pleurodesisUnderwent pleurodesis (31)First13#0.33
Chen [22]2013RCT108ICD, pleurodesisUnderwent pleurodesis (106)First120.49
Ganesalingam [9]2010Retrospective100Conservative, ICDNoneFirst57#0.54
Harvey [23]1994RCT73Needle aspiration versus ICDNoneFirst120.21
Huang [24]2017Epidemiological10 956Conservative, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (8606)First60–1440.24
Karasaki [25]2014Retrospective93HVCDUnderwent surgery (6)First12.50.34
Kim [26]2014Retrospective55Conservative, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (1)First and recurrentUnclear0.16
Kuan [27]2009Retrospective48Conservative, needle aspiration, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (13); recurrent pneumothorax (21)First30.08
Lichter [28]1974Retrospective24Conservative, ICD, surgerySecondary spontaneous pneumothorax (54); underwent surgery (18)First60–1440.08
Light [29]1990RCT22ICD, pleurodesisSecondary spontaneous pneumothorax (171); underwent tetracycline pleurodesis (19)First and recurrent29.1#0.32
Martínez-Ramos [30]2007Retrospective55Conservative, ICDNoneFirst30.7#0.24
Mehta [31]2016Retrospective216ICDNoneNot stated140.13
Nishiuma [32]2012Retrospective66Needle aspirationFailed needle aspiration (25)First and recurrent120.36
Noh [33]2015Retrospective109Conservative, ICD, surgery≤19 years of age (328) and underwent surgery (76)Not statedUnclear0.48
Noh [34]2015Retrospective79Conservative, ICDUnderwent surgery (183)Not statedUnclear0.37
Olesen [6]2016Prospective cohort257Conservative, ICDNoneFirst43.20.56
Ouanes-Besbes [13]2006Prospective63Conservative, needle aspiration, ICD, pleurodesis, surgeryUnderwent pleurodesis (16); underwent surgery (1)First34#0.23
Primavesi [8]2016Retrospective23Conservative, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (33)First670.74
Sadikot [4]1997Retrospective153Conservative, needle aspiration, ICDNoneFirst54#0.54
Sayar [35]2014Prospective154ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (27)Not stated30.6#0.14
Schramel [36]1996Retrospective case–control78Conservative, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (97); no follow-up (34)First and recurrent96#0.39
Tan [5]2017Retrospective97Conservative, needle aspiration, ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (176)First390.56
Tulay [37]2015Retrospective68ICD, surgeryUnderwent surgery (14)FirstUnclear0.27

RCT: randomised controlled trial; ICD: intercostal drain; HVCD: Heimlich valve chest drain. #: mean; : median.