TABLE 4

Importance of adverse events

StudyInstrumentReported formatResults
Bulcun et al. [29]Conjoint analysis/discrete choice analysisInfluence or contribution or weight of certain aspects/attributesPossibility of experiencing adverse effects from treatment
 20%: −0.90
 10%: −0.06
 4%: 1.00
Difference between highest and lowest utility levels: 8.20
The sequence of attributes from most important to least
 important: extent to which the doctor gives sufficient
 time to listen to the patient, possibility of experiencing
 adverse effects from treatment, costs of treatment,
 extent to which the patient sees the same doctor each
 time, and extent to which the doctor treats the patient
 as an entire person.
Kawata et al. [30]Willingness to pay, conjoint analysis/discrete choice analysisMean (95% CI)Utility score
 Mild side-effects (no side-effects as reference): −0.29
  (−0.33– −0.24)
 Moderate to severe side-effects (no side-effects as
  reference): −1.13 (−1.18– −1.09)
 Willingness to pay
 Mild side-effects (no side-effects as reference): $14.81
  ($12.40–17.22)
 Moderate to severe side-effects (no side-effects as
  reference): $58.69 ($56.28–61.11)
Adverse event was considered important for COPD treatment. It was the second most important, only after “complete symptom relief”, and more important than “rarely use rescue medication”, “quick and easy to use inhaler” and “feeling medication work quickly”.
Miravitlles et al. [54]Ideal characteristics of a COPD therapyChoice or proportion of choiceIdeal characteristics of a COPD therapy as listed by survey respondents
 Fewer side-effects 36.0%
The sequence of ideal characteristics from most important to least important: quick symptom relief, longer intervals between flare-ups, fewer side-effects, better ability to cope with daily chores again, lower costs of treatment, better doses.
Patridge et al. [59]Uncategorised survey: perception of disease severityChoice or proportion of choice30.6% of participants expressed concern regarding potential medication side-effects, and on average, patients considered that explaining clearly what are the possible side-effects and risks of the products was very important (9.0 out of 10 on a scale with 1 indicating not at all important and 10 indicating extremely important).
Sharafkhaneh et al. [60]Primary disadvantages of nebulisation therapyChoice or proportion of choiceQuestion: what do you see as the main negatives or disadvantages of nebulisation?
 No negatives: 86 (21.5%)
 Side-effects: 46 (11.5%)
The sequence of disadvantages from most important to least important: device immobile/bulky/cumbersome, time-consuming, side-effects, inconvenient, don't like doing it, having to use it several times a day, care and clean-up after use, too expensive.

COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.