Placebo and zopiclone sleepiness/alertness and driving simulator performance data collected during the baseline and night 30 conditions

Placebo#ZopicloneDelta changep-value
BaselineNight 30BaselineNight 30
ESS+5 (4–12)6 (4–11)8 (5–12)7 (4–9)−1 (−4–1)0.55
FOSQ+101±11101±12101±8103±113 (−2–7)0.25
Leeds§5±15±14±15±10 (−1–1)0.62
KSS6±26±26±16±20 (−1–1)>0.99
AusEd driving simulator
 Deviation from median of lane cm59±2251±1348±1647±137 (−1–15)0.10
 Deviation from 60–80 km·h−1 km·h−12±22±12±12±11 (0–1)0.11
 Braking reaction time ms+1016±2331017±2031034±312957±206−77 (−206–50)0.22

Data are presented as mean±sd or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated; the delta change column indicates the difference from baseline to night 30 between conditions (mean (95% CI) for normally distributed data and Hodge–Lehmann estimated median (95% CI) for nonnormally distributed data). Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ) data were collected in the evening 1.5 h prior to sleep; Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (Leeds), Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and AusEd data were collected 30 min after awakening. #: n=16; : n=14; +: for ESS, FOSQ and AusEd braking reaction time n=15 in the placebo group; §: for Leeds n=13 in the placebo group and n=11 in the zopiclone group. p-values refer to the difference from baseline to night 30 compared between placebo and zopiclone conditions.