TABLE 5

Utility of different chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) severities

StudyInstrumentReported formatGOLD classifications
Mild COPD#Moderate COPDSevere COPD+Very severe COPD§
Boros and Lubinski [34]VASMean (95% CI, sd)0.730 (0.722–0.739, 0.164)0.626 (0.621–0.630, 0.164)0.446 (0.439–0.452, 0.161)0.321 (0.302–0.339, 0.171)
Chen et al. [38]EQ-5D utilityMean0.6860.565
SF-6D utilityƒMean0.6460.597
Hong et al. [45]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.900±0.1400.890±0.1400.840±0.150
EQ-5D VASMean±sd0.730±0.1860.708±0.1910.609±0.234
Kim et al. [28]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd (adjusted mean±sem)0.830±0.170
(0.830±0.040)
0.880±0.120
(0.880±0.020)
0.820±0.160
(0.810±0.030)
0.610±0.260
(0.600±0.040)
EQ-5D VASMean±sd (adjusted mean±sem)0.719±0.189
(0.739±0.054)
0.719±0.178
(0.751±0.029)
0.650±0.206
(0.689±0.033)
0.609±0.139
(0.651±0.056)
Lin et al. [35]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.810±0.1400.810±0.1400.760±0.1700.740±0.150
EQ-5D VASMean±sd0.766±0.1750.726±0.1910.657±2010.611±0.197
Menn et al. [39]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.620±0.2600.600±0.260
SF-6D utilityMean±sd0.610±0.1300.540±0.080
Pickard et al. [36]EQ-5D utility##Mean±sd0.800±0.1300.700±0.2100.720±0.1900.720±0.160
EQ-5D utility¶¶Mean±sd0.730±0.1900.590±0.3200.630±0.2500.630±0.240
EQ-5D VASMean±sd0.743±0.1630.662±0.2000.601±0.1840.587±0.158
Punekar et al. [43]EQ-5D utilityMean (95% CI)0.770 (0.730–0.810) in primary care setting0.680 (0.620–0.740)0.620 (0.560–0.680)
EQ-5D utilityMean (95% CI)0.680 (0.640–0.720) in respiratory specialist care setting0.720 (0.690–0.750)0.640 (0.610–0.720)
Rodriguez Gonzalez-Moro et al.[46]EQ-5D VASMean (95% CI)0.589 (0.581–0.599)0.459 (0.449–0.467)
Rutten van Molken et al. [44]EQ-5D VASMean (95% CI)0.677 (0.665–0.690)0.625 (0.610–0.639)0.578 (0.545–0.612)
EQ-5D utility¶¶Mean (95% CI)0.787 (0.771–0.802)0.750 (0.731–0.768)0.647 (0.598–0.695)
EQ-5D utility##Mean (95% CI)0.832 (0.821–0.843)0.803 (0.790–0.816)0.731 (0.699–0.762)
Rutten van Molken et al. [27]VASMean±semMild COPD: 0.811±0.011Disutility of moderate COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.133±0.006Disutility of severe COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.354±0.006Disutility of very severe COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.508±0.006
TTOMean±semMild COPD: 0.974±0.017Disutility of moderate COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.045±0.008Disutility of severe COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.257±0.008Disutility of very severe COPD in relation to mild COPD: −0.452±0.008
Scharf et al. [62]HUI utilityMean±sd0.400±0.3300.580±0.3600.530±0.3500.390±0.510
Solem et al. [40]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.707±0.1740.623±0.234
Stahl et al. [37]EQ-5D VASMean±sd0.730±0.2100.650±0.2400.620±0.2100.370±0.280
EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.840±0.1500.730±0.2300.740±0.2500.520±0.260
Starkie et al. [41]EQ-5D utilityMean±sdObserved utility for moderate COPD: 0.752±0.220Observed utility for severe COPD: 0.708±0.230Observed utility for very severe COPD: 0.672±0.220
Szende et al. [42]EQ-5D utilityMean±sd0.850±0.1600.730±0.2100.740±0.2400.530±0.280
SF-6D utilityMean±sd0.800±0.1300.730±0.1300.730±0.1400.620±0.150

GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; VAS: visual analogue scale; EQ-5D: EuroQol-5D; TTO: time trade-off; HUI: Health Utility Index. #: forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥80% predicted; : FEV1 <80–≥50% predicted; +: FEV1 <50–≥30% predicted; §: FEV1 <30% predicted; ƒ: Hong Kong value set; ##: US value set; ¶¶: UK value set.