TABLE 3

Frequency of comorbidities in individuals with α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and in the reference group of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease without AATD

AATD patientsNon-AATD patientsp-value
Subjects157506
Asthma59 (37.6)227 (44.9)0.13
Bronchiectasis7 (4.5)18 (3.6)0.78
Rhinitis2 (1.3)5 (1.0)0.67
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease2 (1.3)7 (1.4)1.00
Eczema2 (1.3)14 (2.8)0.38
Osteoporosis8 (5.1)28 (5.5)0.99
Chronic kidney disease0 (0.0)7 (1.4)0.21
Diabetes12 (7.6)66 (13.0)0.09
Hypertension8 (5.1)43 (8.5)0.22
Cardiovascular disease15 (9.6)70 (13.8)0.21
Ischaemic heart disease9 (5.7)27 (5.3)1.00
Heart failure2 (1.3)4 (0.8)0.63
Myocardial infarction2 (1.3)9 (1.8)1.00
Cerebrovascular disease1 (0.6)14 (2.8)0.21
Anxiety and/or depression11 (7.0)50 (9.9)0.35

Data are presented as n or n (%), unless otherwise stated. p-values from Fisher's exact test or the Chi-squared test, as appropriate.