TABLE 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals tested for α1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and found to have or not have AATD

AATD patientsNon-AATD patientsp-value
Subjects157506
Age at COPD diagnosis years46.4±7.847.7±7.70.061
Age at AATD testing years48.3±9.049.9±9.20.016#
Sex
 Female59 (37.6)254 (50.2)0.007#
 Male98 (62.4)252 (49.8)
BMI kg·m−2
 <18.5 (underweight)11 (7.3)35 (7.2)0.066
 18.5–24.9 (normal)74 (49.3)200 (40.9)
 25.0–29.9 (overweight)42 (28.0)129 (26.4)
 ≥30 (obese)23 (15.3)125 (25.6)
 Missing7 (4.5)17 (3.4)
Smoking status
 Current smoker56 (36.8)260 (51.7)0.004#
 Ex-smoker75 (49.3)179 (35.6)
 Nonsmoker21 (13.8)64 (12.7)
 Missing5 (3.2)3 (0.6)
GOLD spirometric severity
 Mild20 (14.6)76 (16.0)<0.001#
 Moderate37 (27.0)225 (47.4)
 Severe44 (32.1)127 (26.7)
 Very severe36 (26.3)47 (9.9)
 Missing20 (12.7)31 (6.1)
FEV1 % pred
 <100 (0.0)2 (0.4)<0.001#
 ≥10– <209 (6.6)14 (2.9)
 ≥20– <3027 (19.7)31 (6.5)
 ≥30– <4026 (19.0)65 (13.7)
 ≥40– <5018 (13.1)62 (13.1)
 ≥50– <607 (5.1)78 (16.4)
 ≥60– <7014 (10.2)78 (16.4)
 ≥70– <8014 (10.2)67 (14.1)
 ≥80– <909 (6.6)33 (6.9)
 ≥9013 (9.5)45 (9.5)
 Missing20 (12.7)31 (6.1)
GOLD 2017 grade
 A24 (24.0)128 (29.4)0.018#
 B7 (7.0)61 (14.0)
 C39 (39.0)108 (24.8)
 D30 (30.0)138 (31.7)
 Missing57 (36.3)71 (14.0)
Annual exacerbation rate (in the year prior to AATD testing)
 080 (51.0)201 (39.7)0.110
 130 (19.1)126 (24.9)
 221 (13.4)71 (14.0)
 39 (5.7)47 (9.3)
 411 (7.0)30 (5.9)
 55 (3.2)15 (3.0)
 ≥61 (0.6)16 (3.2)

Data are presented as n, mean±sd or n (%), unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; BMI: body mass index; GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s. p-values from the Chi-squared test or the Mann–Whitney test, as appropriate. Following Chi-squared tests the residuals were used to determine the nature of the dependence where necessary. #: p<0.05.