TABLE 12

Characteristics of specific mouse models of pulmonary bacterial and viral infection (fungal infections were omitted due to space constraints)

PathogenCharacteristicsReference
Streptococcus pneumoniaeVarious serotypes used experimentally, primarily serotypes 1 and 3[S408–S410]
Many other serotypes avirulent in immunocompetent mice
CBA/J mice susceptible to several clinical isolates of S. pneumoniae without immunosuppression
Pneumococcal disease in mice with S. pneumoniae strain-dependent pathogenesis:[S411]
S. pneumoniae serotype 2 (D39): bacteraemia/high-grade sepsis
S. pneumoniae serotype 3 (A66.1): pneumonia progressing to bacteraemia and sepsis
S. pneumoniae serotype 4 (TIGR4): low-grade pneumonia and bacteraemia, progressing to meningitis
Anaesthetic-dependent severity of disease (pneumococcal strain-independent): more severe forms of pneumococcal disease in mice anaesthetised with ketamine/xylazine compared to isoflurane[S411]
Mouse strain dependency to intranasal pneumococci serotype 2 (D39): resistance (e.g. BALB/c mice) or susceptibility (e.g. CBA/Ca mice) is suggested to be associated with recruitment and/or function of neutrophils[S412]
Klebsiella pneumoniae serotype 2 (ATCC 43816 lab strain)Bacteraemia[S413–S415]
Mortality likely due to sepsis rather than to respiratory failure
K. pneumoniae clinical isolate (e.g. TOP52)Largely survivable and contained to the respiratory tract (only 11% bacteraemia 24h p.i.; proportion similar to that observed in human pneumonia)[S416, S417]
Histologic features of TOP52-infected lungs 24h p.i. parallel those observed in human disease
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (strain JR32)Restriction of bacterial replication during acute infection phase in mice due to flagellin-mediated activation of the NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasome[S418]
Flagellin-mutants of Legionella pneumophila JR32Efficient pulmonary infection with Legionella replication in the lungs[S419–S422]
No mortality in infected mice even at high infection doses
Pseudomonas aeruginosaPneumonia with histopathology similar to human infection[S423]
Infection dose-dependent pneumonia severity/lethality following intratracheal inoculation of P. aeruginosa PA01[S424]
Chronic infection model by intratracheal inoculation of P. aeruginosa enmeshed in agar or seaweek beads
Lung pathology similar to that seen in cystic fibrosis patients with advanced chronic disease[S425, S426]
Mouse strain-dependent differences in the course and outcome of chronic pulmonary infection (e.g. resistant BALB/c mice versus susceptible C57BL/6 mice)[S427–S430]
Sex differences in susceptibility to P. aeruginosa (strain 508) lung infection in C57BL/6 mice[S431]
Chlamydophila pneumoniaeInterstitial pneumonitis following intranasal inoculation of C. pneumoniae (strain AR-39) in Swiss Webster mice[S432, S433]
Mouse strain-dependent course of lung infection
Nonfatal, prolonged course of lung infection in Swiss Webster mice after intranasal inoculation
50% mortality in C57BL/6 mice
Systemic dissemination following intranasal inoculation of C. pneumoniae (strain AR-39)[S433−S435]
Lesions of atherosclerosis as complication
Cell-associated bacteraemia following intranasal or intraperitoneal inoculation of C. pneumoniae (strain AR-39)[S434]
Severe pneumonia in BALB/c mice followed by recovery after intranasal application of C. pneumoniae CWL029 (ATCC VR-1310)[S436]
Culture-dependent chlamydial (CWL029) virulence alteration[S437]
Interstrain differences in virulence of laboratory strains of C. pneumoniae[S438]
High-virulent strains (Kajaani-K6, CWL-029)
Low-virulent isolate (TWAR-183)
Influenza virusManifestation as a primary viral pneumonia[S439–S441]
Clinical signs of influenza virus infection in mice differ from those of typical human influenza (e.g. hypothermia versus febrile response)
Mouse-adapted viruses are needed to induce clinically apparent disease in mice[S442–S444]
Mouse strain-dependent differences in host response to infection with influenza virus

For references listed in the table please refer to the supplementary material.