A review from the literature of key functions modelled in experimental lung research in vivo and in vitro

FunctionIn vivo modellingIn vitro modellingReferences
Lung and airway mechanicsSpontaneous breathing, mechanical ventilationCell stretch devices (table 3), precision cut lung slices (for airway dynamics), isolated airways[S11–S13]
HaemodynamicsAny in vivo modelIsolated perfused lungs, shear stress models (table 3), isolated vessel segments or rings[S14, S15]
OxygenationAny in vivo modelNo in vitro models
Barrier functionAny in vivo modelPermeability and translocation assays, lung-on-a-chip model, isolated perfused lungs[S16–S18]
Tissue remodellingAnimal models of chronic lung diseaseProliferation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, and migration assays; differentiation/de-differentiation/transdifferentiation; matrix deposition and remodelling; juxtacrine/autocrine/paracrine/endocrine signalling[S19–S21]
Immunity, inflammation, defenceModels of infection, sterile inflammation, and autoimmunityAdhesion and migration; juxtacrine/autocrine/paracrine/endocrine signalling; phagocytosis[S22, S23]

For references listed in the table please refer to the supplementary material.