TABLE 5

Large animal models of non-infectious and infectious respiratory diseases

Comparable spontaneous disease in animals (natural model)Large animal modelsReference
Non-infectious respiratory disease in humans
Allergic asthmaFeline asthmaCats, dogs, sheepCat [S69–S72], dog [S73–S75], sheep [S76]
Non-allergic asthmaEquine asthma, heavesHorses[S77–S79]
“Ski-asthma”/exercise-induced airway inflammationRacing sled dogsDogs[S80, S81]
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)Equine COB (chronic obstructive bronchitis) (RAO; recurrent airway obstruction)Horses[S82, S83]
Pulmonary hypertensionHigh altitude pulmonary hypertension in cattle (brisket disease)Calves[S84–S89]
Respiratory distress syndrome (newborns)Many speciesPreterm lamb, preterm pig[S90, S91]
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)Pigs, sheep[S92, S93]
Cystic fibrosisGenetically modified pigs (disruption of the CFTR gene)[S94–S97]
Sleep disordered breathingEnglish bulldog[S98]
Sleep apnoeaObese miniature pigs[S99]
Respiratory infection in humans
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)Bovine RSVCalf, macaquesCalf [S100–S102], macaque [S103]
Tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis)Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) zoonotic agentCattle[S104]
Mycoplasma pneumoniaeMycoplasma bovisCalf[S105–S107]
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniaePig
Chlamydia spp.Respiratory infections with Chlamydia spp. in a variety of large animal speciesCalf : C. psittaci, acute infection; pig: C. suis, acute infection; horse: chronic infectionCalf [S108–S111], pig [S112−S114], horse [S83]
Pseudomonas aeruginosaSheep (chronic infection)[S115]
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA); S. aureus sepsisSheep, pig[S116–S118]
Lung injury induced by sepsis/septic shockPig[S119, S120]

For references listed in the table please refer to the supplementary material.