TABLE 11

Pulmonary fibrosis: a review from the literature of the different multi-model combination systems used to study a specific aspect of fibrosis pathogenesis

Model systemCharacteristicsReferences
MouseStrain dependency to developing fibrosis: resistance (CBA/j, Balb/c) and susceptibility (C57Bl/6)[S396]
Various exogenous insults (bleomycin, TGF-β, radiation, silica, etc.) and routes of administration (intratracheal, intraperitoneal, external beam, subcutaneous)[S396]
Transgenic capabilities to assess individual molecules or pathways[S396]
SheepBronchoscopic instillation of bleomycin allows for focal injury, repeated assays, and using an animal as its own control; histology shows patchy fibrosis but no fibroblastic foci or honeycomb cysts[S32, S397]
West Highland white terriers (and other terrier breeds), domesticated felines, adult horsesNaturally occurring cases of parenchymal pulmonary fibrosis have been documented in various animal species and breeds; although little is known about pathogenesis in these models, they may be useful to study various aspects of fibrogenesis[S398]
Aged donkeysNaturally occurring cases of pleuropulmonary fibroelastosis have been observed in aged donkeys; little is known about pathogenesis in this model[S399]
Acellular human lung slicesMaintains normal spatial resolution and matrix composition[S60, S400–S403]
Precision-cut lung slicesStudy of living lung tissue allows for measuring responses to potential therapeutic or pathogenic agents[S404–S406]
In silico modellingComputer-based analysis of stress-strain and physical force relationships in lung parenchyma, can be used to predict how lung compliance may worsen or improve over time in fibrotic diseases[S407]

TGF: transforming growth factor. For references listed in the table please refer to the supplementary material.