Current limitations to noninvasive, temporo-spatial imaging of pulmonary structure, function and underlying mechanisms in lung disease, as well as current approaches and aspired solutions to overcome them

LimitationCurrent approachAspired solutionReferences
Motion artefactsSuction manifolds, triggered data acquisitionUltra-fast autofocus and three-dimension landmark tracking[S34, S35]
NoninvasivenessRadiographic techniques for macroscopic noninvasive imaging, electrical impedance tomography, endoscopic confocal imagingNoninvasive transthoracic microscopy[S13, S36, S37]
Tissue penetrationTwo- and multi-photon microscopy; confocal microscopy; optical coherence tomography (OCT) imagingRefraction/reflection free or compensated imaging[S38–S40]
Contrast agents and functional tracer dyesInjection of contrast agents, loading of fluorescent dyesAdoptive transfer of labelled cells, inducible cell-specific expression of functional markers and dyes[S41]

For references listed in the table please refer to the supplementary material.