Mean time to treatment initiation in patients included in the study (with and without culture-confirmed tuberculosis (TB)), classified by smear microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF results

CategoryNTime to treatment initiation daysp-value
Mean±sd95% CI 
 Providing respiratory sample only996
 Providing non-respiratory sample only134
 Providing both respiratory and non-respiratory samples71
Culture-confirmed TB cases102
 Pulmonary only64
 Extrapulmonary only23
 Pulmonary and extrapulmonary15
Pulmonary TB cases#65
 Smear-positive/Xpert-positive431.6±3.4(0.58; 2.62)<0.0001
 Smear-negative/Xpert-positive91.8±2.1(0.43; 3.17)<0.0001
 Smear-negative/Xpert-negative138.7±8.8(3.92; 13.48)
Extrapulmonary TB cases#23
 Smear-positive/Xpert-positive83.0±5.4(−0.74; 6.74)0.8
 Smear-negative/Xpert-positive101.5±2.0(0.26; 2.74)0.3
 Smear-negative/Xpert-negative53.6±6.9(1.36; 5.84)

#: with information on Xpert and time to treatment; : two-tailed; compared with smear-negative/Xpert-negative.