TABLE 3

Relationship between first and second trimester fetal size and self-reported symptom or respiratory outcome at 15 years of age per z-score decrease in fetal measurement

First trimester CRLSecond trimester BPDSecond trimester femur length
Asthma#1.43 (1.12–1.84)+1.19 (0.96–1.47)1.35 (1.10–1.65)+
Recent wheeze#1.31 (1.06–1.61)§1.03 (0.86–1.23)1.20 (1.01–1.42)§
Receipt of asthma medications#1.55 (1.16–2.08)+1.20 (0.92–1.56)1.30 (1.03–1.66)§
Current eczema#1.07 (0.82–1.42)1.07 (0.85–1.35)0.97 (0.78–1.20)
Current hay fever#1.22 (0.99–1.50)1.02 (0.87–1.23)1.08 (0.91–1.27)
Atopy#1.08 (0.85–1.38)0.99 (0.80–1.22)1.00 (0.82–1.21)
FEV1 z-score0.003 (−0.12–0.13)0.039 (−0.07–0.15)0.0 (−0.10–0.10)
FEF25–75 z-score−0.035 (−0.15–0.08)0.028 (−0.07–0.12)0.020 (−0.07–0.11)

CRL: crown–rump length; BPD: biparietal diameter; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FEF25–75: forced expiratory flow at 25–75% of forced vital capacity. #: odds ratio for outcome (95% CI) per z-score decrease in fetal measurement (logistic regression adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal history of asthma and sex); : coefficient (95% CI) per z-score reduction (linear regression adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal history of asthma (sex, age and height were included in the calculation of z-scores and not included as covariates)); +: p<0.01; §: p<0.05.