TABLE 4

Results of individual patient data univariable meta-regression to identify risk factors for failure/relapse, death and loss to follow-up

Failure/relapse versus successDeath versus survival#Loss to follow-up versus survival#
Events/patients (%)OR (95% CI)Events/patients (%)OR (95% CI)Events/patients (%)OR (95% CI)
Age (median 31 years)
 Below median15/256 (6)3 (0.95–7)15/271 (6)1 (0.4–1)17/273 (6)0.5 (0.3–0.96)
 Median or above6/242 (2.5)Reference20/262 (8)Reference31/273 (11)Reference
Sex
 Female11/165 (7)2 (0.7–4)17/182 (9)2 (0.96–4)16/181 (9)1 (0.5–1.9)
 Male10/333 (3)Reference18/351 (5)32/365 (9)
HIV status
 Positive1/12 (8)0.4 (0.03–6)4/16 (25)5 (2–17)0/12 (0)NA
 Negative or unknown20/486 (4)Reference31/517 (6)Reference48/534 (9)Reference
Sputum smear
 Positive16/441 (4)1 (0.4–5)32/472 (7)1 (0.4–4)42/483 (9)1 (0.3–2)
 Negative5/53 (9)Reference3/57 (5)Reference6/59 (10)Reference
Chest radiograph
 Cavitary disease6/102 (6)1.5 (0.5–5)8/109 (7)1 (0.6–3)15/117 (13)2 (0.9–3)
 Noncavitary11/374 (3)Reference23/398 (6)Reference31/405 (8)Reference
Timing of culture conversion+
 Did not convert by  month 215/113 (13)7 (3–20)5/117 (4)1 (0.4–3)11/124 (9)2 (1–5)
 Converted by  month 26/356 (2)Reference14/371 (4)Reference15/371 (4)Reference
Fluoroquinolone used
 Moxifloxacin12/74 (16)9 (4–22)6/80 (8)1 (0.5–3)8/82 (9)1 (0.6–3)
 Gatifloxacin9/424 (2)Reference29/453 (6)Reference40/464 (9)Reference
Fluoroquinolone resistance
 Resistant§9/56 (16)46 (8–273)3/59 (5)1 (0.3–3)7/63 (11)1 (0.5–3)
 Susceptibleƒ11/417 (3)Reference26/442 (6)Reference41/458 (9)Reference
Second-line injectable resistance
 Resistant1/11 (9)0.4 (0.04–4)1/12 (8)1 (0.2–12)3/14 (21)3 (0.7–10)
 Susceptible17/457 (4)Reference29/486 (6)Reference45/502 (9)Reference
Pyrazinamide resistance
 Resistant15/124 (12)8 (2–38)6/131 (5)1 (0.3–4)11/135 (8)1 (0.5–3)
 Susceptible2/135 (1.5)Reference6/141 (4)Reference10/145 (7)Reference
Ethambutol resistance
 Resistant19/312 (6)NA22/335 (7)1 (1–3)29/341 (9)1 (0.5–3)
 Susceptible0/163 (0)Reference9/172 (5)Reference18/181 (10)Reference
Prothionamide resistance
 Resistant2/76 (3)1 (0.2–5)#5/81 (6)1 (0.3–3)6/82 (7)1 (0.4–2)
 Susceptible9/339 (3)Reference24/363 (7)Reference30/369 (8)Reference

Data are presented as n/n (%), unless otherwise stated. NA: not available (could not compute); MDR: multidrug-resistant; TB: tuberculosis. Excludes cohorts with only aggregate data available (Cameroon and Niger). Patients with missing data excluded. Odds ratios are rounded to the nearest integer, with the exception of those <1, which are rounded to the nearest decimal place. Italic indicates the 95% confidence interval does not cross 1. #: fixed-effects meta-analysis as random-effects model did not converge; : data from Bangladesh and Uzbekistan only; +: for death, analysis excludes 16 patients that died within the first 2 months of treatment; for loss to follow-up, analysis excludes 22 patients lost within the first 2 months of treatment; §: includes n=13 with ofloxacin-susceptible and low-level gatifloxacin-resistant/high-level gatifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB; ƒ: includes n=5 with ofloxacin-resistant and gatifloxacin-susceptible MDR-TB.