Main analysis | Sensitivity analysis^{#} | |||||

Number of studies | RR (95% CI) | Heterogeneity Chi-squared and I^{2} | Number of studies | RR (95% CI) | Heterogeneity Chi-squared and I^{2} | |

All studies | 8 | 3.33 (2.14–5.19) | 52.59 (df=7; p=0.00) and 86.70% | 12 | 2.81 (1.95–4.05) | 97.86 (df=11; p=0.00) and 88.8% |

Study design | ||||||

Case–control | 4 | 6.33 (5.30–7.56) | 1.82 (df=3; p=0.61) and 0.00% | 8 | 3.15 (1.74–5.71) | 83.77 (df=7; p=0.00) and 91.6% |

Cohort | 4 | 2.38 (1.43–3.96) | 8.07 (df=3; p=0.05) and 62.8% | 4 | 2.38 (1.43–3.96) | 8.07 (df=3; p=0.05) and 62.8% |

Confounding | ||||||

Adjusted for any confounder | 5 | 2.70 (1.73–4.21) | 8.25 (df=4; p=0.08) and 51.50% | 6 | 2.44 (1.61–3.71) | 12. 44 (df=5; p=0.03) and 59.8% |

Adjusted for age | 4 | 2.57 (1.52–4.35) | 8.14 (df=3; p=0.04) and 63.10% | 5 | 2.32 (1.45–3.71) | 12.29 (df=4; p=0.02) and 67.5% |

Adjusted for age and others | 4 | 2.57 (1.52–4.35) | 8.14 (df=3; p=0.04) and 63.10% | 5 | 2.32 (1.45–3.71) | 12.29 (df=4; p=0.02) and 67.5% |

Tuberculosis burden in study country of origin | ||||||

High tuberculosis burden countries | 1 | 3.96 (1.53–10.27) | 2 | 2.72 (1.48–5.00) | 1.02 (df=1; p=0.31) and 1.8% | |

Non-high tuberculosis burden countries | 7 | 3.26 (2.01–5.26) | 52.59 (df=6; p=0.00) and 88.60% | 10 | 2.81 (1.88–4.21) | 96.28 (df=9; p=0.00) and 90.7% |

Problem-drinking in study country of origin | ||||||

Problem-drinking countries | 1 | 3.96 (1.53–10.27) | 2 | 2.72 (1.48–5.00) | 1.02 (df=1; p=0.31) and 1.8% | |

Non-problem-drinking countries | 7 | 3.26 (2.01–5.26) | 52.59 (df=6; p=0.00) and 88.60% | 10 | 2.81 (1.88–4.21) | 96.28 (df=9; p=0.00) and 90.7% |

df: degrees of freedom. ^{#}: includes studies with unclear temporal relationships between exposure and outcome.