TABLE 1

Risk relations (RRs) from categorical meta-analyses of alcohol use (versus no alcohol use) as a risk factor for tuberculosis

Main analysisSensitivity analysis#
Number of studiesRR (95% CI)Heterogeneity Chi-squared and I2Number of studiesRR (95% CI)Heterogeneity Chi-squared and I2
All studies151.35 (1.09–1.68)82.49 (df=14; p=0.00) and 83.00%191.50 (1.22–1.84)118.45 (df=18; p=0.00) and 84.8%
All studies (including studies with drinkers in reference category)201.50 (1.23–1.83)110.91 (df=19; p=0.00) and 82.90%241.60 (1.32–1.94)146.25 (df=23; p=0.00) and 84.3%
Study design
  Case–control121.35 (1.00–1.81)60.94 (df=11; p=0.00) and 81.90%161.53 (1.17–1.99)85.30 (df=15; p=0.00) and 82.4%
  Cohort31.49 (0.90–2.46)8.57 (df=2; p=0.01) and 76.70%31.49 (0.90–2.46)8.57 (df=2; p=0.01) and 76.7%
Confounding
  Adjusted for any confounder111.47 (1.16–1.88)60.14 (df=10; p=0.00) and 83.40%131.46 (1.18–1.81)63.07 (df=12; p=0.00) and 81.0%
  Adjusted for age91.34 (1.05–1.72)41.33 (df=8; p=0.00) and 80.60%101.33 (1.07–1.66)42.43 (df=9; p=0.00) and 78.8%
  Adjusted for age and others81.27 (0.99–1.64)33.05 (df=7; p=0.00) and 78.80%91.27 (1.01–1.59)34.22 (df=8; p=0.00) and 76.6%
Tuberculosis burden in study country of origin
  High tuberculosis burden countries51.56 (1.27–1.91)6.35 (df=4; p=0.18) and 37.00%71.51 (1.30–1.76)7.25 (df=6; p=0.30) and 17.2%
  Non-high tuberculosis burden countries101.25 (0.91–1.70)53.43 (df=9; p=0.00) and 83.20%121.49 (1.07–2.06)87.79 (df=11; p=0.00) and 87.5%
Problem drinking in study country of origin
  Problem-drinking countries91.51 (1.12–2.03)61.05 (df=8; p=0.00) and 86.90%101.48 (1.13–1.92)62.04 (df=9; p=0.00) and 85.5%
  Non-problem-drinking countries61.19 (0.81–1.76)21.42 (df=5; p=0.00) and 76.70%91.58 (1.04–2.40)52.10 (df=8; p=0.00) and 84.6%

df: degrees of freedom. #: includes studies with unclear temporal relationships between exposure and outcome.