TABLE 2

Associations between maternal free sugar intake during pregnancy and asthma, wheeze, eczema, hay fever and atopy in the offspring

Maternal free sugar intake during pregnancyp-trend
Quintile 1Quintile 2Quintile 3Quintile 4Quintile 5Per quintile
Asthma n=7677
 Adjusted OR# (95% CI)1.001.14 (0.91–1.41)0.97 (0.77–1.23)1.22 (0.96–1.56)1.37 (1.04–1.81)1.07 (1.00–1.14)0.04
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.18 (0.94–1.47)1.02 (0.80–1.29)1.24 (0.97–1.58)1.31 (0.98–1.75)1.06 (0.99–1.13)0.09
Wheeze n=7762
 Adjusted OR# (95% CI)1.001.21 (0.96–1.52)1.05 (0.82–1.35)1.19 (0.92–1.54)1.38 (1.03–1.85)1.06 (0.99–1.13)0.09
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.25 (0.99–1.58)1.11 (0.86–1.42)1.22 (0.94–1.59)1.42 (1.05–1.92)1.06 (0.99–1.14)0.08
Eczema n=7748
 Adjusted OR# (95% CI)1.001.19 (0.98–1.44)1.13 (0.93–1.38)1.05 (0.84–1.30)0.91 (0.70–1.17)0.97 (0.92–1.03)0.33
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.17 (0.96–1.42)1.15 (0.94–1.41)1.07 (0.86–1.33)0.97 (0.74–1.26)0.99 (0.93–1.05)0.70
Hay fever n=7728
 Adjusted OR# (95% CI)1.001.07 (0.82–1.38)1.25 (0.96–1.63)1.23 (0.93–1.63)1.22 (0.88–1.69)1.06 (0.98–1.14)0.13
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.001.03 (0.79–1.33)1.24 (0.95–1.62)1.21 (0.91–1.60)1.25 (0.89–1.75)1.07 (0.99–1.15)0.10
Atopy n=6117
 Adjusted OR# (95% CI)1.000.99 (0.81–1.21)1.09 (0.89–1.34)1.19 (0.96–1.47)1.24 (0.97–1.60)1.06 (1.01–1.13)0.03
 Adjusted OR (95% CI)1.000.98 (0.80–1.20)1.10 (0.89–1.35)1.20 (0.96–1.49)1.38 (1.06–1.78)1.09 (1.02–1.15)0.006

#: controlling for energy intake; : controlling for energy intake, smoking, infections, supplements, antibiotics and paracetamol use during pregnancy; maternal educational level, housing tenure, financial difficulties, ethnicity, age, parity, history of atopic diseases, anxiety, sex of child, season of birth, multiple pregnancy and breastfeeding duration.