TABLE 1

Characteristics of mothers and offspring who had information on at least one of the outcomes of interest (wheeze, asthma, atopy, eczema, hay fever, total IgE and lung function) by maternal free sugar intake during pregnancy#

Free sugar intake g·day−1p-value
Quintile 1
(1.6–34.0)
Quintile 2
(34.0–46.6)
Quintile 3
(46.6–60.8)
Quintile 4
(60.8–82.4)
Quintile 5
(82.4–345.1)
Mother's age years29.4±4.729.1±4.529.2±4.628.9±4.527.9±4.7<0.001
Parity
 043.246.148.644.944.00.001
 135.437.235.136.335.9
 ≥221.416.716.318.820.0
Sex of child
 Male51.252.350.552.349.50.39
 Female48.847.749.547.750.5
Multiple pregnancy
 Singleton97.396.798.098.397.30.01
 Twin2.73.32.01.72.7
Season of birth
 Winter15.017.616.615.716.0<0.001
 Spring23.625.326.829.130.7
 Summer33.129.331.828.927.1
 Autumn28.327.824.926.426.2
Breastfeeding duration months
 Never21.318.917.522.127.1<0.001
 <334.030.030.129.234.2
 3–613.114.914.613.312.8
 ≥631.536.337.435.425.9
Mother's educational level
 Certificate of Secondary Education16.712.913.414.520.4<0.001
 Vocational8.69.28.18.510.8
 Ordinary level36.235.032.835.138.8
 Advanced level24.626.626.326.021.2
 Degree14.016.219.415.98.9
Maternal ethnicity
 White97.897.298.598.498.80.003
 Non-white2.22.81.51.61.2
Housing tenure
 Owned/mortgaged82.686.586.585.176.8<0.001
 Council rented9.97.26.68.815.8
 Non-council rented7.56.37.06.17.5
Financial difficulties
 No82.682.884.385.378.8<0.001
 Yes17.417.215.714.721.2
Maternal history of atopic diseases
 No32.232.033.731.428.90.05
 Yes67.868.066.368.671.1
Maternal anxiety score during pregnancy
 0–924.023.423.120.814.3<0.001
 10–1425.127.525.726.124.3
 15–2024.425.127.327.125.4
 ≥2026.524.124.026.136.1
Maximum maternal tobacco exposure cigarettes·day−1
 None27.827.628.928.219.2<0.001
 Passive only45.448.547.346.042.3
 1–97.67.78.18.08.1
 10–1912.510.19.410.115.2
 ≥206.76.26.27.715.2
Maternal paracetamol use during pregnancy
 No38.038.037.738.036.40.86
 Yes62.062.062.362.063.6
Maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy
 No83.785.484.083.782.90.34
 Yes16.314.616.016.317.1
Maternal supplement use during pregnancy
 No44.543.144.441.941.60.26
 Yes55.556.955.658.158.4
Maternal infections during pregnancy
 No57.255.155.853.349.3<0.001
 Yes42.844.944.246.750.7
Total energy intake kJ·day−15567±13766499±13267166±13607931±14889317±1994<0.001
Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI kg·m−2
 <18.502.72.84.44.08.1<0.001
 18.50–24.9970.874.377.776.777.4
 25.00–29.9917.717.113.514.811.6
 ≥30.008.85.84.44.52.9
Birthweight g
 <25004.24.03.64.35.60.02
 2500–299914.213.213.912.815.2
 3000–349934.834.935.136.735.6
 3500–399932.233.633.533.633.0
 ≥400014.714.413.812.611.0
Gestational age weeks39.4±1.839.5±1.739.5±1.739.5±1.839.4±1.90.28
Child's BMI at age 7years kg·m−2
 <15.0025.826.330.327.730.7<0.001
 15.00–17.4951.952.351.254.452.6
 17.50–20.4917.216.614.214.313.6
 ≥20.505.24.84.33.53.1
Maternal weight gain during pregnancy
 Quartile 130.323.724.523.524.5<0.001
 Quartile 224.325.025.124.725.0
 Quartile 324.227.026.326.423.4
 Quartile 421.324.324.125.427.1

Data are presented as mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index. #: n=8956.