The association between pulmonary artery (PA) to aorta (A) ratio and all-cause mortality

SubjectsModel 1#Model 2
Total population+21971.09 (1.00–1.20)1.08 (0.98–1.18)
No COPD19751.05 (0.95–1.17)1.04 (0.93–1.15)
All COPD§2221.17 (0.98–1.40)1.21 (1.01–1.46)
 Mild981.08 (0.77–1.52)1.09 (0.76–1.56)
 Moderate-to-severe1091.22 (0.94–1.58)1.36 (1.03–1.79)

Data are presented as n or hazard ratio per 1-sd increase in PA:A (95% CI). Bold type represents statistical significance. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. #: adjusted for age and sex; : adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus and left ventricular systolic function; +: model 2 additionally adjusted for COPD; §: the total number of COPD cases in the subgroups do not add up to the total number of all COPD cases, since COPD diagnosis in 15 out of 222 subjects was confirmed after reviewing medical charts and specialist letters, but severity could not be determined.