Associations between forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) % and wealth score, adjusted for age and sex only and then for multiple potential confounding factors

Adjusted for age and sex onlyAdjusted for age, sex and other potential confounders
Coefficient95% CIp-valueCoefficient95% CIp-value
Wealth Score0.360.22–0.49<0.0010.230.11–0.34<0.001
Age years−0.27−0.31–−0.23<0.001−0.25−0.29–−0.22<0.001
Education level completed0.100.32–0.120.383
Smoking pack-years−0.06−0.09–−0.04<0.001
Passive smoking0.311.14–0.530.474
Worked in a dusty job years−0.04−0.06–−0.010.003
Family history of COPD0.751.87–0.370.191
Hospitalised as a child2.445.18–0.290.080

Coefficients indicate the effect of an individual having the stated characteristic (versus not having that characteristic) on FEV1/FVC % or for a one-unit increase in that variable, adjusted for all other variables in that column (e.g. individuals with a history of tuberculosis had an FEV1/FVC 2.3% lower on average than comparable individuals without a history of tuberculosis. Bold denotes statistical significance. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.