TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study population in the 12 centres#

Sousse, TunisiaKashmir, IndiaIfe, NigeriaFes, MoroccoTirana, AlbaniaAnnaba, AlgeriaPenang, MalaysiaRiyadh, S. ArabiaBlantyre, MalawiSri LankaNaryn, KyrgyzstanChui, Kyrgyzstan
Subjects n7981077168397411889381200843758140811601876
Participants n (%)+660 (83)738 (69)864 (51)760 (78)928 (78)862 (92)649 (54)679 (81)402 (53)1035 (74)820 (71)858 (46)
Males515254524950495254484842
Age years52±952±1053±1155±1256±1254±1155±1051±851±953±952±1053±10
BMI ≥25762344667369558840456265
Height cm164±9160±9165±8162±9164±9164±10159±8162±9163±8157±9162±9163±9
Smoking pack years§16±25133±2071±68±1912±1911±196±169±242±263±96±1210±18
Passive smokingƒ3564212381126638311
Dusty job##5013844642832172636634
Tuberculosis¶¶001112025111
Family history of COPD++62010865320327
Childhood hospitalisation§§301112311317
Post primary educationƒƒ501859288056656546739497
FEV1/FVC %80±777±1079±879±878±1078±781±783±679±880±978±776±9
FEV1/FVC<LLN51679973378813
Wealth score###9±14±25±28±29±28±19±110±04±36±25±16±2
GNI per capita US$ PPP9680475049306160995012 86022 53053 760750948031003100
Asthma ever8217684315623
Open fire >20 years¶¶¶2310027229118261751448855
Smoker+++455314303739252617243138

Data are presented as mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. BMI: body mass index; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; LLN: lower limit of normal; GNI: gross national income; PPP: purchasing power parity. #: individual responses have been weighted according to the probability of selection to provide population estimates of means and percentages for each of the study areas; : individuals selected for possible inclusion in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study using a random sampling process; +: individuals included in the study (i.e. those who agreed to take part in the BOLD study and provided useable data from both the questionnaire and spirometry tests); §: 1 pack-year equals an average of 20 cigarettes per day for 1 year or the equivalent amount of other types of tobacco smoking; ƒ: somebody else in the household smoked during the past 2 weeks; ##: the respondent was employed in a dusty job for at least 1 year; ¶¶: ever diagnosed with tuberculosis; ++: a close sibling or parent had been diagnosed as having emphysema, chronic bronchitis or COPD by a health professional; §§: hospitalised for breathing problems before the age of 10 years; ƒƒ: highest level of education completed was above primary school; ###: calculated from ownership of a range of assets (see methods and [12]); ¶¶¶: exposure to open fires for cooking and/or heating for more than 20 years; +++: current or ex-smoker.