TABLE 3

Final model of absolute forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and sex difference in breathlessness in 3250 subjects from the general population

OverallFemalesMales
Subjects n325016731577
Females versus males1.29 (0.89–1.87)
FEV1 per L0.48 (0.33–0.69)0.48 (0.33–0.69)0.48 (0.30–0.75)
Age per year0.99 (0.97–1.01)0.99 (0.98–1.01)0.98 (0.95–1.02)
BMI per kg·m-21.10 (1.07–1.13)1.10 (1.07–1.13)1.11 (1.06–1.16)
Exercise ≥2 h·week-1Ref.Ref.Ref.
Exercise 0.5–1 h·week-11.53 (1.20–1.96)1.24 (0.92–1.69)2.31 (1.71–3.11)
No exercise2.17 (1.66–2.84)1.77 (1.25–2.50)3.16 (2.20–4.55)
Smoking per pack-year#1.00 (1.00–1.01)1.00 (0.99–1.01)1.01 (1.00–1.01)
CAL FEV1/FVC <LLN1.40 (0.83–2.37)1.44 (0.87–2.36)1.33 (0.63–2.82)
Chronic bronchitis2.22 (1.71–2.89)2.68 (1.94–3.70)1.65 (1.02–2.68)
IHD1.60 (1.01–2.52)1.34 (0.67–2.69)2.01 (1.13–3.56)
History of depression1.37 (1.10–1.71)1.53 (1.17–2.00)1.03 (0.64–1.66)
  • Data are presented as odds ratio (95% CI), unless otherwise stated. Adjusted associations with the severity of exercise-related breathlessness on the modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea (mMRC) scale overall and in males and females separately, estimated using ordered logistic regression clustering over 24 centres. The model explained 22.8% of the variation in mMRC scores. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; BMI: body mass index; CAL: chronic airflow limitation; FVC: forced vital capacity; LLN: lower limit of normal; IHD: ischaemic heart disease; ref.: reference. #: (mean cigarettes per day/20) × (number of years of smoking).