TABLE 3

Crude and adjusted hazard ratios of cardiovascular outcomes associated with adding a second long-acting bronchodilator (tiotropium or long-acting β2-agonist) compared with remaining on a single long-acting bronchodilator in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with 1 year follow-up, from the intent-to-treat analysis

Patients nEvents nPerson-yearsRate per 1000 per yearCrude# HRAdjusted HR (95% CI)
Acute myocardial infarction
 Monotherapy31 13825123 25310.81.001.00 (reference)
 Combination31 13831827 95611.41.071.06 (0.89–1.25)
Stroke
 Monotherapy31 12319423 2678.31.001.00 (reference)
 Combination31 12321327 9807.60.920.94 (0.77–1.15)
Heart failure
 Monotherapy31 17469723 19230.01.001.00 (reference)
 Combination31 17492827 66033.51.151.14 (1.03–1.26)
Arrhythmia
 Monotherapy18 86114914 07610.61.001.00 (reference)
 Combination18 86118416 91910.91.041.01 (0.81–1.26)
  • #: crude, after matching on high-dimensional propensity scores and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in the year prior to cohort entry; : after matching on high-dimensional propensity scores and ICS use in the year prior to cohort entry, adjusted further for patient characteristics (10 year age groups, sex, calendar year of cohort entry) as well as the decile of propensity score, ipratropium use prior to cohort entry and time since entry into base cohort.