TABLE 4

Comorbidities in study groups

Never and ex-smokers with <10 pack-yearsNon-obstructive patients with ≥10 pack-yearsACOS: ≥10 pack-years FEV1/FVC <0.7p-value#
Subjects n1223234
Number of comorbidities1 (0–2)1 (0–3)2 (1–3)0.008
Obesity§37 (30.3)19 (59.4)10 (29.4)+0.007
Hypertension35 (28.7)10 (31.3)18 (52.9)0.029
Coronary heart disease7 (5.7)6 (18.8)7 (20.6)0.012
Hypercholesterolaemia18 (14.8)8 (25.0)12 (35.3)0.023
Diabetes15 (12.3)5 (15.6)8 (23.5)0.264
Systemic rheumatoid disease4 (3.3)1 (3.1)1 (2.9)0.995
Thyroid disease9 (7.4)3 (9.4)4 (11.8)0.707
Number of other medicationsƒ1 (0–3)2 (1–5)3 (1–7)0.004

Data are presented as n (%), or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. Statistically significant p-values are presented in bold. #: p-value across all groups; : as compared to group 1 (never and ex-smokers with <10 pack-years), p<0.05; +: as compared to group 2 (non-obstructive patients with ≥10 pack-years), p<0.05; §: body mass index ≥30 kg·m–2; ƒ: other than medications for asthma or allergy. ACOS: asthma–chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity.