Evaluation of presence of bias for all 41 identified relevant studies

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  • Data are presented as the risk of bias. Green: low risk of bias; red: risk of bias; yellow: uncertain risk of bias. PE: pulmonary embolism; CTEPH: chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. #: only the abstract was available; study is still recruiting patients, data collection not finalised yet; +: article in Chinese; §: diagnostic criteria for PE not specified; ƒ: number of patients with abnormal echocardiography not reported.