Illustrative examples of biomarkers of cardiovascular effects

Decreased heart rate variability
Changes in ECG depolarisation and repolarisation
Increased carotid intima-media thickness
Increased coronary artery calcification
Carotid artery stenosis
Increased aortic calcification
Increased arterial stiffness
Impaired vascular endothelial function
Impaired vascular fibrinolysis
Increased platelet adhesiveness or activation
Increased thrombogenicity
Increased markers of systemic inflammation, endothelial function, nitric oxide metabolism, oxidation etc.