TABLE 5

Unadjusted and age-adjusted risk for affirmative answers to questions on symptoms, use of medication and diseases for persons with FEV1/FVC<LLN (1953 females and 1552 males) compared to FEV1/FVC<0.7 and ≥LLN (793 females and 1264 males)

Self-reported symptoms, use of medications and diseasesMaleFemale
ORAge adjusted OR 95%CIORAge adjusted OR 95%CI
Wheezing or dyspnoea last 12 months2.43.6 (3.0–4.4)1.42.6 (2.1–3.3)
Daily cough with phlegm2.23.1 (2.5–3.9)1.11.3 (1.1–1.7)
Modified MRC >23.15.6 (4.0–8.1)1.94.1 (2.7–6.1)
Use of asthma medication last 5 years3.14.8 (3.9–5.9)1.73.2 (2.5–4.0)
Use of asthma medication last 12 months3.45.7 (4.4–7.3)1.63.2 (2.4–4.2)
Ever asthma2.82.9 (2.4–3.5)1.32.3 (1.8–2.9)
Doctor diagnosis of asthma2.93.5 (2.7–4.6)1.42.2 (1.6–2.9)
Ever COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis3.26.0 (4.6–7.8)1.84.2 (3.1–5.6)
Doctor diagnosis of COPD, emphysema or chronic bronchitis3.66.8 (4.8–9.5)2.04.3 (3.0–6.3)
Ever myocardial infarction0.40.7 (0.5–1.0)1.44.5 (2.4–8.3)
Ever stroke0.61.3 (0.9–1.8)0.20.7 (0.5–1.3)
  • FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC: forced vital capacity; LLN: lower limit of normal; MRC: Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Score; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.