TABLE 2

Risk factors for developing tuberculosis (TB) after latent TB infection diagnosis, 2005–2013

No active TBActive TBUnivariable Cox regressionMultivariable Cox regression
HR (95% CI)p-valueaHR (95% CI)p-value
Total14 107134 (0.9%)
Period
 2005–2007587953 (0.9%)1.00.051.00.07
 2008–2010453348 (1.1%)1.4 (0.93–2.1)1.5 (1.0–2.3)
 2011–2013369533 (0.9%)1.8 (1.1–2.8)1.7 (1.0–2.9)0.04
Sex
 Male690972 (1.0%)1.00.26
 Female718362 (0.9%)0.82 (0.59–1.2)
 Unknown#150 (0.0%)
Age group
 0–4 years3018 (2.6%)3.2 (1.5–7.0)2.9 (1.3–6.2)
 5–24 years434136 (0.8%)1.00.011.00.001
 25–44 years536657 (1.1%)1.3 (0.87–2.0)0.96 (0.63–1.5)
 ≥45 years409933 (0.8%)1.0 (0.64–1.6)0.58 (0.35–0.96)
Origin
 Dutch born10 36991 (0.9%)1.00.03
 Foreign born373843 (1.2%)1.5 (1.1–2.2)
BCG vaccination
 No BCG961796 (1.0%)1.00.95
 BCG306927 (0.9%)1.0 (0.67–1.6)
 BCG unknown142111 (0.8%)0.92 (0.49–1.7)
Test
 TST926896 (1.0%)1.00.71
 IGRA6606 (0.9%)1.2 (0.54–2.8)
 TST and IGRA398329 (0.7%)0.92 (0.60–1.4)
 Other method or unknown1963 (1.5%)1.7 (0.54–5.43)
Target group
 Contact investigation8389110 (1.3%)2.9 (1.7–5.0)3.3 (1.9–5.7)
 Immunosuppression7414 (0.5%)1.3 (0.44–4.0)2.0 (0.62–6.3)
 Pre-exposure329515 (0.5%)1.0<0.0011.0<0.001
 Post-exposure HCWs and travellers15523 (0.2%)0.41 (0.12–1.4)0.44 (0.13–1.5)
 Fibrotic chest-radiographic abnormalities1302 (1.5%)3.7 (0.85–16.3)3.5 (0.78–15.9)
Case management
 6–9H523829 (0.6%)0.38 (0.24–0.59)0.32 (0.20–0.51)
 3–4RH, 4R, 2RZ or 2RHEZ339325 (0.7%)0.68 (0.42–1.1)0.41 (0.24–0.68)
 Other1833 (1.6%)1.3 (0.40–4.1)0.97 (0.29–3.2)
 PT <28 days1528 (5.3%)4.0 (1.9–8.3)3.1 (1.5–6.6)
 PT ≥28 days or more, or not completed99413 (1.3%)0.93 (0.51–1.7)0.73 (0.40–1.4)
 No PT414756 (1.4%)1.0<0.0011.0<0.001
  • HR: hazard ratio; aHR: adjusted hazard ratio; BCG: bacille Calmette–Guérin; TST: tuberculin skin test; IGRA: interferon-γ release assay; HCW: healthcare worker; 6–9H: 6–9 months of isoniazid; 3–4RH: 3–4 months of rifampicin and isoniazid; 4R: 4 months of rifampicin; 2RZ: 2 months of rifampicin and pyrazinamide; 2RHEZ: 2 months of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide; PT: preventive treatment. #: missing; : Wald test.