TABLE 1

Cross-sectional associations between high attenuation areas (HAA) and serum biomarkers of lung injury, extracellular matrix remodelling and inflammation at the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) baseline exam stratified by smoking status

OverallEver-smokersNever-smokersp-value for smoking interaction
Change in biomarker# %p-valueChange in biomarker# %p-valueChange in biomarker# %p-value
MMP-7 ng·mL−16.26 (1.29–11.47)0.0115.45 (7.91–23.53)<0.0011.39 (−5.36–8.62)0.69<0.001
SP-A ng·mL−12.36 (−6.28–11.80)0.608.60 (−3.52–22.30)0.170.61 (−11.95–14.97)0.930.14
CRP mg·L−1−2.73 (−8.82–3.76)0.404.18 (−5.16–14.45)0.39−6.03 (−14.16–2.86)0.180.88
IL-6 pg·mL−18.78 (4.77–12.95)<0.00117.70 (11.38–24.38)<0.0012.88 (−2.34–8.39)0.280.11
  • MMP-7: matrix metalloproteinase-7; SP-A: surfactant protein-A, CRP: C-reactive protein; IL-6: interleukin-6. For MMP-7 and SP-A, n=908 (341 cases defined as having HAA >9% and a randomly selected subcohort of 600 MESA participants; 33 participants in the subcohort also met case definition); for CRP, n=6761; for IL-6, n=6621. #: adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, height, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, glomerular filtration rate, study site, mA dose, total volume of imaged lung and percentage emphysema. Adjustment for smoking status and pack-years was excluded from smoking-stratified models. All covariates measured at baseline examination in 2000–2002. Percentage change is reported per two-fold increase in HAA.