Associations between baseline high attenuation areas (HAA) and mortality over 12.2 years of follow-up in 6808 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) participants

HAAp-value for trendOverallp-value
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4
Number at-risk16991699170016996808
Number of decedents2522372833211093
Person-years of observation19 01018 80518 84418 34775 006
Mortality rate per 1000 person-years13.312.615.017.514.6
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI) per doubling of HAA
Model 1#Ref1.15 (0.94–1.40)1.51 (1.23–1.87)1.94 (1.53–2.46)<0.0011.58 (1.39–1.79)<0.001
Model 2Ref1.15 (0.95–1.41)1.52 (1.23–1.88)1.91 (1.51–2.43)<0.0011.55 (1.37–1.77)<0.001
Model 2, stratified by smoking status+
 Ever-smokersRef1.35 (1.05–1.72)1.65 (1.27–2.15)2.42 (1.81–3.22)<0.0011.78 (1.50–2.11)<0.001
 Never-smokersRef1.02 (0.73–1.43)1.40 (0.99–2.00)1.55 (1.02–2.35)0.021.38 (1.12–1.70)0.002
  • #: adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, height, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, glomerular filtration rate, study site, mA dose, total volume of imaged lung and percent emphysema. Adjustment for smoking status and pack-years was excluded from smoking-stratified models. All covariates measured at baseline examination in 2000–2002. : model 2 is additionally adjusted for alcohol use, exercise, coronary artery calcium, diabetes medication use, insulin use, fasting glucose level, hypertension, antihypertensive medication use, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, cholesterol medication use, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, C-reactive protein level, D-dimer level and history of cancer. +: p-value for interaction 0.56.