Shows the different technologies used in studies

Author [ref.]Electronic deviceSignalsRationale for use
Bertini [22]Digital multi-parametric recorderTidal volume, respiratory frequency, minute ventilation, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, inspiratory positive airway pressure, expiratory positive airway pressureOnce a week nocturnal monitoring and a telephone counselling, when needed, available 24/7 with medical doctors in charge
Vitacca [23]Phone, pulse oximeter sensor, oximeter with solid memory card plus a modem system and home telephone lineVoice, pulse oximetry data, pulse oximetry trendCalls contacts, home support helpline to identify patient/equipment problems and strategies to minimise risk for patients, healthcare teams and manufacturers; monitoring
Ritchie [24]An interactive voice response and personal phoneRecorded voiceE-coach
Miyasaka[25]A tablet computer with webcamVideo imagesVideo conferencing
Vontetsianos [26]Video conference cameraVoiceRehabilitation programme prescription and adherence monitoring
Holland [27]Commercially available webcam devices
Smith [28]Video deviceSkin colour vital signsCaregiver's use of the patient equipment, equipment demonstrations, visual illustrations, audio-recorded educational directions to facilitate patient care
Paget [29]Web based device “Genesis monitor”, telephone lineBlood pressure cuff, glucometer, pulse oximeter,Daily recording of signals
Takahashi [30]Video conferencing deviceScales, blood pressure cuff, glucometer, pulse oximeter, and peak flow dataReal-time video conferencing capability tele-monitoring
Segrelles [31]Spirometer, a pulse oximeter and heart rate monitor (Spirotel; MIR Waukesha, WI, USA), blood pressure monitor (model UA-767 BT; A&D San Jose, CA, USA), modem (Tele-Modem; Aerotel Medical Systems, Holon, Israel), and telephone linesBlood pressure cuff, glucometer, pulse oximeter, heart rate and peak flow dataTele-monitoring
Ure [32]Touch screen computerQuestionnaire answersTo record a validated daily symptom score comprising questions
Pinnock [33]Touch screen, algorithms, telephone, and video linkQuestionnaire answers, video images and voiceTele-monitoring: the participant recorded and transmitted a daily questionnaire about symptoms and use of treatment and monitored oxygen saturation
Zamith [34]Doc@Home device (Docobo, Leatherhead, UK), oximetry (BCI 3303; Smiths Medical PM, Inc., Waukesha WI, USA) plus ECGPeak expiratory flow rate, oximetry, ECG and messagesMonitoring signal and compliance, symptoms, medication, sleep quality, smoking, impact on exertion, and weight
Trappenburg [35]Portable device Health Buddy systemOximetry, ECG; clinical questionnaires; messagesTo transfer patient-clinician data by Internet to doctors; functional monitoring and prescription
Alonso [36]Sensors connected through a body area network with a platform configured to display the data and transfer it to the server using general packet radio serviceVital signsVital signs are collected and may be transmitted to the data monitor centre
Pedone [37]SweetAge monitoring system, Bluetooth transmitter, commercial pulse-oximeter, Bluetooth transmitter coupled with the wristband, commercial cellular telephone coupled with the wristband via Bluetooth connection, and telephone equipped with softwareHeart rate, physical activity, near-body temperature, and galvanic skin responseFunctional and physical activity monitoring allowing for reception of data transmitted by the wristband and acted as a gateway to send the data to the monitoring system
Antoniades [38]Laptop computer touch plate stethoscope, pneumotachograph, thermometer, and questionnaire programmeBlood pressure, pulse oximeter, electrocardiogram, temperature, and informationData uploaded daily to a central server via internet connection through the patient's telephone line. Scales for overall health, dyspnoea, sputum colour and volume, symptoms of respiratory tract infection and changes in medication usage
Pinto [9], De Almeida [10]Modem device with internal memory and integrated transmission, oximeter (Pulsox-3iA; Konica Minolta Sensing, Osaka, Japan) with SR-5C finger clip (Konica Minolta Sensing) and helpline numberTidal volume, respiratory frequency, minute ventilation, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, inspiratory positive airway pressure and expiratory positive airway pressureVentilator Goodknight 425ST bi-level (Puritan Bennett, Gosport, UK) device monitoring
Hazenberg [17]Telephone, transcutaneous monitor, laptop, and software programme.Ventilator information (e.g. volume, frequency, pressure levels, hours ventilator), carbon dioxide and oxygen saturationVentilator device monitoring use
Zamarron [11]Commercially available telemedicine system, set top box connected to the television as a user interface, simple menu on television screen.Oximetry, blood pressure and ECG alarmsRemote monitoring of biological signals, videoconferencing,
Fraysse [39]CPAP Secure Digital cardHours of use, CPAP level and leaksData transmitting box every week for 2 months
Ishida [40]Wearable respiration monitoring system. (piezoelectric sensor, a low-power 8-bit single chip microcontroller, EEPROM and a 2.4 GHz low-power transmitting mobile phone)Sequentially stores the movement signalDetection of sleep apnoea syndrome, whether the patient has breathed during that time
Nikander [41]Telehealth enabled nebulizer system (Prodose Adaptive Aerosol Delivery System; Philips Respironics, Chichester, UK)To delivery repeat medication in cystic fibrosis
Borel [15]Noninvasive ventilation softwareEXACT-Pro questionnaire every day plus continuous monitoring of respiratory rate, percentage of respiratory cycles triggered by the patient and noninvasive ventilation daily useTo assess daily variations in three parameters to predict the risk of exacerbation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated by home noninvasive ventilation
  • CPAP: continuous positive airway pressure; EEPROM: electrically erasable programmable read-only memory; EXACT-PRO: the exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease tool patient-reported outcome.