TABLE 2

Time and modality of follow-up schedules

Author [ref.]PopulationTime to tele-assistance initiationTime of TM use
Miyasaka [25]Paediatric patients for home ventilatory care n=7Implementation of a videophone systemNA
Pinto [9]ALS n=40, all ventilatedControls: admission, 2–3 weeks later, every 3 month thereafter
Intervention: every week by modem; every 3 month in-office
3 years
De Almeida [10]ALSNot mentionedNA
Vitacca [46]ALS n=73 (NIV n=18 and invasive ventilation n=18)Median time from diagnosis to TM 440 days
Phone calls per patient per month 4.8±2.5
Time per month of calls 3–256 min
Calls weekly scheduled or requested by patient/career (unscheduled)
4 years
Vitacca [47]ALS n=40 (NIV n=19 and invasive ventilation n=12)8–6 months (1–12 months)/≥5 calls per patient per month
Total calls: 2224 (1907 scheduled, 317 unscheduled)
1–12 months
Zamith [34]Asthma n=21 plus CRF n=51 (LTOT n=41 and NIV n=32)Not mentioned9 months
Bertini [22]HMV n=16 (invasive MV n=5, NIV n=11, COPD n=3, RTD n=4, NMD n=8, Ondine Syndrome# n=1)The data analysed routinely every week or in real time after a phone call by the patient or care givers to the doctor in charge2 years
De Toledo [49]COPD n=157On demand1 year
Vontetsianos [26]COPD n=18 plus at least four hospitalisations in the previous 2 yearsOnce a month via nurse9 months
Trappenburg [35]COPD (study n=59, controls n=56)Daily symptom surveillance6 months
Segrelles [31]Home telehealth n=30, controls n=30; FEV1 <50%, age ≥50 years, LTOT, non-smokers, with at least one hospitalisation for respiratory illness in the previous yearMonday–Sunday; From Monday through to Friday the data is monitored and assessed by the Clinical Monitoring Center from 09:00 h to 17:00 h and during weekends the data is directly analysed by pulmonologist7 months
Jódar-Sánchez [50]Telehealth n=24 and control group n=21 on usual care; under LTOT and with at least one hospitalisation for respiratory illness in the previous yearVital signs on weekdays and spirometry (2 days per week)4 months
Maiolo [42]COPD patients on LTOT n=2f0 and RTD n=3Twice a week12 months
Moreira [45]Patients n=35 (OSA 40.0%, COPD 22.8%, NMD 11.4%, TB sequelae 2.9%, kyphoscoliosis 2.9% and 20.0% other CRF causes)Compliance downloads on fourth day and second month, nocturnal oximetry on seventh day and first month3 months
Pinnock [33]Patients randomised to tele-monitoring n=128, patients randomised to usual care n=128Daily questionnaire about symptoms and oxygen saturation12 months
Pedone [37]COPD n=50 (GOLD II and III) patients in the tele-monitoring group and controls n=49System set up to perform five measurement of each parameter every 3 h9 months
Vitacca [23]CRF patients needing LTOT or HMV plus at least one hospitalisation for respiratory illness in the previous year, COPD 56%, RTD 15%, NMD 10%, ALS 9%, other 10%; of which 46% on NIV, 21.4% on IMV and 63% onLTOTContinuous 24 h on-call service (interactive online system)1 year
Borel [15]COPD on home NIVEXACT-Pro questionnaire every day plus continuous monitoring of respiratory rate percentage of respiratory cycles triggered by the patient and NIV daily use6 months
  • NA: not available; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; NIV: noninvasive ventilation; TM: tele-monitoring; CRF: chronic respiratory failure; LTOT: long-term oxygen therapy; HMV: home mechanical ventilation; MV: mechanical ventilation; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; RTD: respiratory tract disease; NMD: neuromuscular disorders; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; EXACT-PRO: the exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease tool patient-reported outcome. #: Also known as congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS).