TABLE 1

Characteristics of the subjects from whom lung tissue was obtained

Control nonsmokerControl smokerCOPD stage II#COPD stage IV#
Subjects n8779
Female %63432980
Age years67 (46–81)56 (47–61)56 (47–70)57 (44–61)
Smoking statusNonsmokerCurrentCurrentEx-smoker
FEV1 % predicted103 (85–114)94 (91–104)67 (56–80)20 (16–60)
  • Data are presented as median (range), unless otherwise stated. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1s. #: COPD patients were included based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease standard [1]; : ≥10 pack-years.