TABLE 3

Results of Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile during spontaneous breathing and noninvasive ventilation (NIV) according to the pre-inspiratory cortical activity

Overall populationPIP+PIPp-value (PIP+versus PIP)
Subjects n1486
A1 score (out of 10)
 Spontaneous breathing3 (1.7–5.2)5 (3–6)1.5 (0.9–2.7)<0.01
 NIV0.25 (0–0.62)0.25 (0–0.5)0.25 (0–1.2)0.85
 p-value (spontaneous breathing versus NIV)<0.0010.0080.031
SQ1: muscle work or effort (out of 10)
 Spontaneous breathing4 (0.75–6.25)4.5 (4–7.7)0.5 (0–3.7)0.01
 NIV0 (0–1)0.5 (0–1)0 (0–0.2)0.28
 p-value (spontaneous breathing versus NIV)<0.0010.0080.250
SQ2: air hunger (out of 10)
 Spontaneous breathing1.5 (0–6.2)6 (2.5–7)0 (0–1)<0.01
 NIV0 (0–1)0.5 (0–1)0 (0–0)0.14
 p-value (spontaneous breathing versus NIV)0.0020.0080.500
Sensory score (out of 60)
 Spontaneous breathing14.5 (6.2–25)21 (14.2–26.5)5.5 (2.4–12.2)0.01
 NIV3.5 (1–6.1)3.5 (1.2–5.62)3 (0.7–6.87)1.00
 p-value (spontaneous breathing versus NIV)<0.001<0.010.03
Emotional response score (out of 50)
 Spontaneous breathing13 (6.5–14)13 (7.75–18.5)11 (6.5–12.5)0.354
 NIVNDNDNDND
 p-value (spontaneous breathing versus NIV)NDNDND
  • Data are presented as n or median (interquartile range), unless otherwise stated. PIP: pre-inspiratory potentials; SQ: sensory quality; ND: not determined.