Patient characteristics at the time of inclusion

Age years66.4±9.9 (n=273)
Occupational status
 Long-term sick leave9.4
Active smoker33.0
Cumulative smoking pack-years29.0±19.4 (n=87)
GOLD stage for severity of airflow obstruction
GOLD “ABCD” category
Exacerbations in the past 12 months
 ≥1 exacerbation52.2
FEV1 % predicted44.8±16.1 (n=264)
FRC % predicted149.4±43.9 (n=145)
IC/TLC ratio0.3±0.1 (n=183)
Concomitant diseases#
 Cardiovascular disease55.8
 Neuropsychiatric disease31.2
  • Data are presented as mean±sd or %, unless otherwise stated. GOLD: Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; FEV1: forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FRC: functional residual capacity; IC/TLC: inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity. #: from medical history and/or patient's files.