TABLE 1

Summary table of World Health Organization recommendations for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) programmatic management based on category of countries

Country groupsIndicated at risk populations (strong recommendations)Testing algorithmTreatment options
High-income and upper-middle income countries with an estimated TB incidence rate <100 per 100 000 population (low TB burden)People living with HIV
Adults and children who are household contacts of pulmonary TB cases
Clinical indications: patients with silicosis; patients initiating anti-TNF treatment; patients on dialysis; patients preparing for organ or haematological transplantation
Exclude active TB using TB investigations according to national guidelines
A positive IGRA or TST result is required to diagnose LTBI
6 months daily isoniazid
9 months daily isoniazid
3 months weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid
3–4 months daily isoniazid plus rifampicin
3–4 months daily rifampicin
Resource-limited and other high and middle-income countries with an estimated TB incidence rate >100 per 100 000 population (high TB burden)People living with HIV
Children aged <5 years who are household contacts of a pulmonary TB case
Exclude active TB using TB investigations according to national guidelines
An LTBI test is not required prior to LTBI treatment, but is encouraged for people living with HIV
IGRA should not replace TST
6 months daily isoniazid
  • TNF: tumour necrosis factor; IGRA: interferon-γ release assay TST: tuberculin skin test.